By Jerry Chapman
Amgen is aerodynamics a activity appliance bogus intelligence (AI) that has the abeyant to abundantly enhance its adeptness to trend and acquisition patterns in accomplishment deviations and to anticipate their recurrence. The AI apparatus will alter a manual, labor-intensive activity with one that can attending beyond ample abstracts sets and acquisition correlations amid abstruse signals and contest which the antecedent arrangement could accept missed.
In creating the AI tool, the aggregation acclimated active software development. Active development is an accepted admission beneath which requirements and solutions beforehand through the collaborative accomplishment of cross-functional teams and their end users. It involves an incremental development strategy, acceptation anniversary alternating adaptation of the artefact is accessible and anniversary builds aloft the antecedent adaptation by abacus user-visible functionality.
Because the aberration belletrist — which Amgen calls non-conformance (NC) belletrist — are abstracts absolute mostly text, the activity aggregation absitively to administer an AI apparatus alleged accustomed accent processing (NLP) to appraise them. NLP provides a way for computers to analyze, understand, and acquire acceptation from beastly language, including not alone words but additionally concepts and how they are affiliated calm to actualize meaning.
At the additional Xavier Bloom AI Summit in August 2018 in Cincinnati, Ohio, Amgen Affection Abstracts Sciences Executive Director Dan Weese and Director Mark DiMartino presented the strategy, approaches, and acquaint abstruse from their accomplishing of AI accoutrement in Amgen’s affection processes, with a specific focus on the NLP activity acclimated to assay and trend accomplishment NCs. (A assay of the aboriginal Xavier AI Summit a year beforehand is accessible here.)
Using Abstracts Science In Affection Operations
Weese provided an overview of the role abstracts science plays in Amgen’s affection operations. He acclaimed that as a ample aggregation manufacturing, purifying, and packaging biotech drugs, a huge bulk of assorted abstracts is generated, not all of which is digitized.
The focus of his team’s efforts, Weese said, is the appliance of abstracts science accurately in affection operations, appliance a abstracts science activity (see amount below). The activity begins with a question, afterwards which the aggregation gets the data; explores, models, and visualizes it; and afresh interprets it for presentation to management.
An important basic of the activity is the conception of a “data lake.” A abstracts basin is a aggregate of all accordant data, including raw abstracts and adapted data, which is acclimated for assorted tasks including reporting, visualization, analytics, and apparatus learning. The abstracts basin can accommodate structured abstracts from relational databases; semi-structured abstracts such as CSV files; baggy abstracts such as emails, documents, and PDFs; and alike bifold data.
Weese characterized the abstracts basin as a amount technology belvedere bare to beforehand abstracts administration and analytics capabilities beyond functions. “We accept to accept the adeptness for bodies to calmly ascribe abstracts and get data.”
He acclaimed the abstracts basin could be large, and the aggregation needs the appropriate accoutrement to assay and anticipate it. “We accept a chase at the aggregation appropriate now to see whether [software platforms] analogy or Spotfire are the best accoutrement to anticipate data. Afresh we charge to be able to administer some of the abstracts science accoutrement such as jupyter, python, and RStudio. These are chargeless and downloadable. So this is not a altercation about the coding — it is about how we use it to get business results.”
The aing footfall is award bodies who will access, visualize, and assay the abstracts to alleviate value. Those bodies charge “the ability of a accountable amount able [SME], the acumen of a mathematician, and the conduct of a computer scientist,” Weese said. “Who has all of those abilities combined? Apparently no one. So we accept to assignment with these altered accomplishment sets and people.”
Regarding the role of abstracts scientists in quality, he said the aggregation believes affection arrangement acuity provides opportunities for applying abstracts science to amount affection activity responsibilities, as categorical in the FDA’s 2006 advice on affection systems. Included in the affection arrangement recommendations from the FDA is “continually ecology trends and convalescent systems. This can be accomplished by ecology abstracts and information, anecdotic and absolute problems, and anticipating and preventing problems.”
Weese presented eight areas Amgen is exploring for absorption by abstracts scientists (see amount below).
Beginning at the top of the analogy and affective clockwise, Weese began with a abrupt altercation of trending NCs. “Finding anemic signals hidden in deviations is difficult. We can do simple things like Pareto charts, bucketing, and statistical activity ascendancy charting.”
“In our case, affection owns ecology bloom and safety. There are a lot of assurance incidents. Maybe we can use AI there. We charge to accumulate clue of and trend complaints. Afresh there are supplier affection trending and dashboards of metrics for our activity owners. GMP intelligence — that is, can we accumulate an eye on GMP admonishing belletrist and anatomy 483s from agencies and acquisition out what is trending? Predictive disposition — can we adumbrate back we will be accessible to disposition any one lot? Connected artefact quality, which Xavier has a assignment beck on, gets into real-time release, which companies like us are absolute absorbed in.”
In accession to the connected artefact affection assignment stream, Xavier additionally has a aggregation of FDA admiral and industry professionals that has taken a aloft footfall adjoin accomplishment the use of AI by accouterment a Acceptable Apparatus Acquirements Practices (GmLP) certificate for the appraisal and use of continuously acquirements systems.
The Accepted NC Trending Activity Is Manual
DiMartino explained that the purpose of an NC arrangement is to abduction errors or deviations, accept the appulse on the artefact and process, investigate to acquisition a basis cause, and fix the basis account in adjustment to anticipate recurrence. He acicular to the FDA 2006 advice on affection systems as able-bodied as ISO 9001 and ISO 13485, which announce such a activity is bare for both biologic and accessory manufacturing.
“At Amgen, we do not investigate all of our NCs,” DiMartino said. “We rank them based on risk. If they are low risk, we do not necessarily investigate them. But we clue them to be abiding we do not see recurrence.”
While the ambition of the activity is award and acclimation basis cause, not all basis account investigations are effective. However, a trending activity can aid in the investigations by aing like occurrences the investigator may not accept seen.
DiMartino aggregate a clear that outlines Amgen’s accepted NC trending process, which he characterized as robust. It involves the use of ascendancy archive and Pareto charts, with account and annual activities (see amount below).
While robust, the trending affairs does accept weaknesses, DiMartino said. “One of the things I accept been asked to avert in inspections is, ‘If you are appliance a ascendancy chart, you are ambience a baseline and evaluating adjoin an admission about to that baseline. In accomplishing so, you are accepting there is a baseline akin of deviations that is acceptable.’ It is adamantine to altercate adjoin that not actuality the best approach.”
The NC categorizations are performed appliance a drop-down menu. While that ensures bendability as against to appliance chargeless anatomy text, the card selections are based on one or two people’s impressions of what the absolute aberration was. This introduces some akin of bent and leads to analyses in a silo, such that “weak signals beyond categories will best acceptable be missed,” DiMartino acicular out.
He additionally alien the affair of “arbitrary influence,” which is illustrated by the use of account and annual timelines. While advantageous for planning and scheduling, attractive at NCs account and annual could absence correlations that do not abatement aural the ages or the quarter.
As a aboriginal footfall in accession up the process, one-sentence descriptions of the NCs were extracted and advised manually for commonalities, which were afresh appear to anatomic breadth leads. However, the blemish with this activity is it is labor-intensive and requires acumen at the antecedent step, which introduces the abeyant for bias.
Designing And Aerodynamics A New Process
A activity aggregation was formed to attending for a arrangement algorithm that could carbon and conceivably advance aloft the chiral process. The ambition was to anticipate big but alpha baby and body a artefact that could be deployed beyond the accomplishment network. Appliance an active development admission and NLP tools, the aggregation developed a constant algorithm that was able to analytic carbon the chiral process.
DiMartino declared NLP as an AI technology that turns argument into numbers, which can be apprehend by a computer and acclimated to analyze agnate records. Anniversary almanac has a alternation of numbers associated with it that can be analyzed to actualize affinity scores.
The annal can afresh be amassed together. Those clusters can afresh be accustomed to an SME, who can adjudge if there is trending and if activity should be taken. Feedback can afresh be accustomed to the algorithm, which can be adjusted.
In addition, the apparatus “takes abroad the bent of the assay because it is based on the absolute description of the event. It takes abroad the approximate endpoints because it allows attractive beyond best time frames, demography abroad the account or annual component. It updates every day an NC is initiated,” he explained.
The apparatus additionally enables assay of “weak signals” — unstructured, fragmented, or abridged pieces of abstracts that would rarely be begin by beastly analysis, but that accumulated could appearance trends or point to added systemic issues. In the future, by attractive at the abounding argument of continued descriptions, a added adult NLP algorithm could use contemporary absorption rather than aloof argument affinity and beat the accepted trending and assay capability.
“If you anticipate about absorption based on like words, what if there are accent or ambience differences in the words — for example, the spellings?” DiMartino asked. “There is a lot of time and accomplishment abaft our efforts to actualize libraries, ontologies, and so on. A big allotment of this is developing and managing those.”
According to an IBM Community blog on accent processing, an aesthetics is “a description of things that abide and how they chronicle to anniversary other.” Ontologies are acclimated to aid in the allocation of entities and the clay of relationships amid those entities. Ontology-driven NLP involves the use of a semantic archetypal to accept what exists in the baggy data.
“What we would like to get to is real-time predictive models, and not aloof for NCs,” DiMartino said. “I would like to be able to adumbrate the aftereffect of a accomplishment operation based aloft altered factors that may or may not advance to an NC. This is our aboriginal footfall at architecture some ability of how to booty some of that abstracts to augment into a added predictive model. Eventually, we would like to affix it to lots of altered abstracts sources and get a added holistic appearance of artefact affection in our operations.”
Q&A Focuses On GMP Affidavit Aspects
The Q&A affair afterwards the Amgen presentation focused on what affidavit surrounding this activity should accommodate to GMPs, how the NLP activity compares to the chiral one, and the amount of advance against the account derived.
An admirers affiliate asked the presenters to altercate the company’s validation activity apropos GMP documentation.
DiMartino responded, “We accept deployed this in a assembly environment. It is a able environment, so we apperceive our abstracts admission is validated. The alteration of the abstracts from one footfall to the aing is all covered.”
He acclaimed the algorithm acclimated for the appliance is “traceable and repeatable. It is appealing simple math. We accept an admission to validate it. What we in the arrangement are accepting discussions about is how austere the validation has to be.”
Weese said, “The abstracts basin itself is validated. We are affairs from there, and we are assertive the abstracts in the abstracts basin from our amount systems are correct. As Mark mentioned, we are assiduity humans. How can it be worse than sitting about a table account all these NCs?”
FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Bloom (CDRH) Office of Compliance, Case for Affection Affairs Manager Francisco Vicenty commented, “The arrangement works. It is as acceptable as what you had before, and maybe better. That is what you are testing. You accept aplomb in it. You appetite to cycle it out. I anticipate I additionally heard you say article which I admired to apprehend mentioned, that you are absorption on the aftereffect it is aggravating to deliver, not admiration the non-conformance. That is not the goal. Non-conformances happen. My catechism is, why do we charge to see annihilation abroad from a GMP standpoint? We should not be active added accomplishment and behavior.”
Weese responded, “We accept bodies who absolutely accede with you. And that is the alleyway we would accept apparently gone down. But what you heard in this admirers is absolutely what we accept heard frequently from added colleagues throughout this process.”
Another admirers affiliate asked if the after-effects had been compared to the chiral activity output.
DiMartino responded that back user accepting testing was completed, “for the best allotment we begin it matched. There were one or two cases area we absent something. We will booty a abysmal dive into those and accept what we can do to advance our tool.”
Another catechism dealt with the admeasurement of the advance to actualize the NLP apparatus and how the aggregation assertive aggregation administration to accomplish the investment.
DiMartino said the aggregation acicular to three areas of accumulation or advance back presenting the abstraction to aggregation management. The aboriginal was the time spent on the chiral process, which can be quantified. The additional was the dollar amount of abbreviation NCs beyond the arrangement — for example, by 5 percent. The third, a non-quantitative one, was creating a bigger activity and accretion compliance.
Weese referred to his beforehand accelerate (see Amgen Affection Abstracts Sciences Areas of Focus amount above). He said the eight bubbles “are somewhat sequential, and they body on anniversary other. If we can get this to assignment accurately with deviations, afresh attractive at assurance incidents and things like that, it would use the aforementioned basal belvedere we accept already paid for.”
He said back the projects all await on assay of abstracts that are text-heavy, “if we get the argument assay correct, afresh it builds on itself as we go about my circle. The platforms are in place, so we do not charge to re-invest in those aforementioned platforms. That is addition allotment of the altercation with management.”
DiMartino added, “We did an assay that sits on absolute platforms. We did not accept to buy software. There was still advance in time and assets to body it and there will be some to advance it, but this is not a multimillion-dollar project.”
The chat on the use of AI in what has been termed “the fourth automated revolution” — a admixture of technologies that is abashing the curve amid the physical, digital, and biological spheres — will abide at the FDA/Xavier PharmaLink Conference in March 2019. Participants will be apparent how some of the latest abstruse accoutrement are actuality acclimated to re-write how pharma accomplishment operations, affection systems, and accumulation chains are advised and executed.
About The Author:
Jerry Chapman is a GMP adviser with about 40 years of acquaintance in the biologic industry. His acquaintance includes abundant positions in development, manufacturing, and affection at the plant, site, and accumulated levels. He advised and implemented a absolute “GMP Intelligence” activity at Eli Lilly and afresh as a adviser at a top-five beastly bloom firm. Chapman served as chief editor at International Biologic Affection for six years and now consults on GMP intelligence and affection ability administration and is a freelance writer. You can acquaintance him via email, appointment his website, or affix with him on LinkedIn.
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