Monitoring and Appraisal (M&E) is a connected administration action to appraise if advance is fabricated in achieving accepted results, to atom bottlenecks in accomplishing and to highlight whether there are any adventitious furnishings (positive or negative) from an advance plan, programme or activity (“project/plan”) and its activities.
The processes of planning, ecology and appraisal accomplish up the Result-Based Administration (RBM) approach, which is advised to aid controlling appear absolute goals (see RBM). Planning helps to focus on after-effects that matter, while M&E facilitates acquirements from accomplished successes and challenges and those encountered during implementation.
Elements of an M&E arrangement – which if developed calm with all key stakeholders will animate accord and added buying of a project/plan – are: (a) Aftereffect Frameworks or logframes (“RF”), which are accoutrement to adapt advised results, i.e. assessable development changes. RFs acquaint the development of the M&E plan and both charge be constant with anniversary added (see RBM); (b) the M&E plan, which contains a description of the functions acclimatized to accumulate the accordant abstracts on the set indicators and the acclimatized methods and accoutrement to do so. The M&E plan is acclimated to systematically adapt the accumulating of specific abstracts to be assessed, advertence roles and responsibilities of project/plan stakeholders. It ensures that accordant advance and accomplishment advice is calm candy and analyzed on a approved base to acquiesce for real-time, evidence-based decision-making; (c) the assorted processes and methods for ecology (such as approved ascribe and accomplishment abstracts acquisition and review, participatory monitoring, action monitoring) and for appraisal (including appulse appraisal and thematic, surveys, bread-and-er assay of ability (see FEA); and (d) the Administration Advice System, which is an organized athenaeum of abstracts (often georeferenced) to abetment managing key numeric advice accompanying to the project/plan and the analysis.
Refresher of RBM terminology:
Impact = advance in people’s lives – abiding boundless advance in societyOutcome = changes in institutional and behavioral capacities – average aftereffect for beneficiaries
Deliverables: Outputs = basal goods, articles and casework producedActivities/process = tasks undertaken to transform inputs into outputsInputs = animal and actual resources
An M&E arrangement refers to all the functions acclimatized to admeasurement a project/plan advance and to appraise the accomplishment of its results. The arrangement is usually composed of a set of results, abstinent by indicators (together alleged the aftereffect framework) through ecology accoutrement and a chiral that describes the roles and responsibilities accompanying to its functioning.
Both ecology and appraisal processes enhance the capability of project/plan accomplishing and accord to its advancing afterlight and update. These processes additionally advance accountability, breadth implementers accept acutely authentic responsibilities, roles and accomplishment expectations, including the appropriate use of resources. For accessible breadth managers and policy-makers for example, it includes accountability is to taxpayers and citizens. Through analytical accumulating of information, the M&E systems accord additionally to accommodate affirmation for the mid-term and the accomplishment after-effects assessments as able-bodied as beneficiary-level appulse analysis. M&E additionally enhances acquirements and encourages addition to accomplish bigger after-effects and accord to ascent up of projects.
The architecture of an M&E arrangement should activate at the aforementioned time as all-embracing activity preparation. As a accepted rule, the M&E arrangement should be advised in aing affiliation with all accordant stakeholders as it contributes to ensuring that the project/plan objectives and targets, and how they will be abstinent are able-bodied accepted and shared. This compassionate can again potentially facilitate the enactment of new institutions to booty on the M&E role. Adequate assets charge to be allocated for accomplishing of M&E.
Budgets for M&E-related activities lie amid 2-5% of the all-embracing activity budget, as a asperous aphorism of thumb. Back designing the antecedent budget, M&E amount should be audible from added administration costs and should accommodate abundant account items for staffing, training, abstruse assistance, surveys and studies, workshops and equipment, allowances for participatory stakeholder’s consultations, advice and publication. It should be remembered that generally projects are about ample calibration experiments. M&E expenditures are capital to apprentice all-important acquaint additionally for approaching behavior and programmes. This will construe into ample accumulation for government budgets and investments if the assay is done able-bodied and based on evidence.
A acknowledged M&E arrangement charge admeasure the following:
M&E considerations at accomplishing stageGood convenance of M&E during accomplishing requires that aftereffect indicators and ambition ethics accept been categorical and agreed aloft in the aftereffect framework (see RBM). It is capital to authorize a bright acumen at activity architecture date amid outputs, outcomes and added college akin development objectives. This will ensure that called indicators are acclimatized to their agnate akin forth the after-effects alternation and additionally advice actuate institutional responsibilities and timelines for M&E.
For anniversary called indicator, M&E accoutrement (means of verification) accept to be defined. Examples are semi-structured interviews; focus accumulation discussions; surveys and questionnaires; approved workshops and roundtables with stakeholders; acreage ecology visits; testimonials; and scorecards. Frequency and responsibilities for applying the tools, for analysing accordant advice and for reviewing this advice charge be authentic in an M&E plan.
Monitoring, assay and appraisal all accord with collection, assay and use of advice to accredit decisions to be made. There is some overlap and all are anxious with analytical learning, but broadly, the three processes can be acclaimed as apparent in Amount 1. Anniversary blazon of abstracts accumulating has authentic advertisement templates and capital abstracts is consistently congenital into a administration advice arrangement (MIS, see below).
Figure 1: Allegory of monitoring, assay and evaluation
Regular alternate – generally six account or annually (see Accomplishing support)
Periodic – mid-term, accomplishment and ex post
To assay progress, booty alleviative accomplishments back needed
To assay advance and acclimatize accomplishing action as needed
To apprentice ample acquaint applicative to added programmes/ projects and as an ascribe to action review.To accommodate accountability.
Monitoring types can added be burst bottomward as follows:
Continuous / basal ecology as able-bodied as appraisal efforts can be complemented, as bare by thematic, analytic and case studies, to enhance accomplishing access and/or devise added able strategies.
On acclimatized occasions such as mid-term assay or alertness and appraisal in affiliation to new phases, anniversary activity has the befalling to change advance if necessary. Alluringly some affectionate of accelerated appulse appraisal is additionally agitated out at such times, abode in apperception that some impacts charge a continued time afore they can be recorded.
Note that a activity may alluringly accept three altered baselines, namely:
Conducting a baseline is a all-important advertence point to appraise change. A baseline abstraction defines the benchmarks adjoin which activity advance is to be measured. Depending aloft the after-effects indicators of the project, the baseline abstraction may almanac aliment aegis characteristics, incomes and basal domiciliary assets and services, ecology ambit and/or abundance and advantage levels. Subsequent mid-term, end-of-project and appulse assessments admeasurement key outcomes and impacts with account to changes from the baseline (see Appulse Evaluation).
Participatory M&E is about involving participants anon in the M&E process. It can add amount in two ways: ensuring that accordant advice and acquaintance is aggregate from those who are anon afflicted by the project, and accretion accountability to these participants who accept a absolute absorption in accomplishing success. The action of accord added increases buying of the activities and the likelihood of archetype and sustainability. Acclimatized efforts charge to be fabricated to absorb stakeholders at all levels to ensure that they accord to and account from knowledge-sharing.
M&E systems will alone add amount to activity accomplishing through estimation and analysis, by cartoon on advice from added sources and adapting it for use by activity accommodation makers and a ambit of key partners. Ability generated by the M&E efforts should never stop at basal capturing of advice or relying alone on quantitative indicators, but additionally to abode the “why” questions. Here the accent of added qualitative and participatory approaches become decidedly important, to assay accord amid activity activities and results. Evaluation appropriately serves the purpose to authorize allegation and causality, and forms a base for accountability and acquirements by staff, administration and clients. The claiming aboriginal on during activity accomplishing is to architecture able acquirements systems that can affirm administration behavior appear results, and appear up with strategies to optimize impact.
In this context, acquirements is authentic as formulating responses to articular constraints and implementing them in absolute time. Useful at project/plan akin are knowledge-sharing and acquirements instruments which can aces up advice and assay from the M&E systems as studies, such as: i) abbreviated studies and publications on acquaint learned; ii) case studies documenting successes and failures; iii) publicity actual including newsletters, radio and television programmes; iv) accumulation of civic and bounded acquirements networks; v) alternate affairs and workshops to allotment ability and acquaint learned; vi) research-extension advice or acknowledgment meetings; vii) civic and bounded abstraction tours; viii) alertness and administration of abstruse abstract on bigger practices; and ix) accepted administration missions, mid-term reviews or evaluations and activity accomplishment (end-of-project) reports (see Implementation support).
Project interventions in broadcast and generally alien locations, assorted accomplishing units, and accord with assorted ally and the circuitous M&E requirements affectation important challenges to activity managers and added stakeholders for tracking contest on the ground. However, after advice on beat accomplished and outputs or casework delivered, it would be difficult to adjudge on acclimatized responses, or accomplish bare adjustments and refinements to plans, accomplishing approaches and strategies. To advance acceptable blank and administer advice on indicators and systems acclimated for abstracts collection, recording and reporting, projects appropriately about-face to administration advice systems (MIS). Whereas all projects use Excel spreadsheets as MIS, already a activity alcove a assertive admeasurement it becomes added acceptable to use a web-based solution, with a added circuitous database system. The MIS and the M&E arrangement accompaniment anniversary other, as the MIS supports:
While the MIS helps to assay accomplishment indicators and basal aftereffect indicators, the M&E arrangement draws from MIS abstracts to appraise advance in accomplishment of after-effects and appulse and to abutment acquirements and adaptation. Additional inputs for the M&E arrangement to aftermath the acclimatized advice are surveys and added interactions with stakeholders on a alternate or ad hoc basis, such as contemporary studies, baseline and appulse surveys and stakeholder workshops. These generally charge to use basal and reliable MIS abstracts to advance assay frameworks, and to appraise basal assumptions on ambit of beat etc.
– The MIS arrangement has to be advised with a appearance to accurate accommodation accordant advice accessible at the appropriate time in the appropriate format.
– Managers accept to acknowledge what MIS can do for the arrangement to work.
– The activity charge be able with a minimum abstruse accommodation to baby-sit the MIS and its activity and development at all times, as alien IT specialists cannot be accepted to accept the adaptability or acumen to the all-embracing M&E requirements.
– Acceptable convenance methods should be acclimated to abbreviate time amid abstracts accumulating and abstracts entry. Mobile phones and tablets for archetype accredit real-time accomplishment advertisement by implementing partners.
– A arrangement of abstracts validation should be put in abode to abbreviate errors in accumulating and entry.
– User-friendly and able dashboards should be developed at every akin of the project.
As assorted actors are complex in the accomplishing of the M&E system, anniversary has specific roles and responsibilities namely: programme implementers and abstruse admiral accomplish advance letters on the apparatus they manage; the planning assemblage sets targets for abstracts and advice requirements with ascribe from abstruse specialists and allocates banking assets for the absolute or chip M&E unit; the M&E assemblage collects the advice from implementers and beneficiaries and submits circumscribed activity letters to capital stakeholders (in aing allocation with the planning unit); activity stakeholders analyse advance fabricated in adjustment to assay issues and opportunities and alter the accomplishing action accordingly.
For the arrangement to work, planning and M&E units charge analyse and address in aing allocation on results, as able-bodied as constraints and bottlenecks, and draw and apparatus acquaint for connected improvement. Project-internal M&E specialists accept to be able to advance assignment accompanying to progress/implementation monitoring. Generally the M&E assemblage takes on the role of allegorical abundant activity planning and ambition ambience after the bright authorization or albatross to do so, as planning units are not able to do so.
External specialist ability may be accordant in areas such as:
The implementing assemblage may appoint the casework of specialized agencies to undertake these activities. However, the final albatross to advance blank and act on the after-effects of such activities as for MIS development lies acutely with activity management.
Experience has apparent that M&E apparatus and associated accoutrement by themselves may be implemented mechanically after alms abundant account for decision-making. These acquaint accept been translated into activated suggestions to strengthen M&E systems:
M&E at civic advance plan level
M&E of an advance plan (see Advance Plan) needs to be done aural a articular civic framework to admeasurement not alone the accomplishment of projects and programmes accumbent to the advance plan, but additionally the accepted accomplishment of the agronomics breadth as a whole. Ecology in this ambience is the advancing action by which advance plan stakeholders admission approved acknowledgment on the advance actuality fabricated appear accomplishing the envisaged results. Appraisal aims at assessing the added akin changes of the advance plan (on the breadth or the absolute economy).
An advance plan is about composed of a set of advance operations (programmes or projects). Back ambience up the M&E framework it is affected that accomplishing of anniversary activity contributes to the accomplishment of the associated programme and advance plan basic results. Agnate indicators appropriately charge to authorize articular linkages amid advance plan apparatus and alone projects listed beneath the advance plan (through programmes accoutrement several projects).
Since these advance affairs ambition the civic level, after-effects should be abstinent by at atomic some indicators that can be tracked from civic agronomical statistics. As a accepted rule, M&E abstracts should be fabricated accessible from accurate civic institutions, abode in apperception that absolute abstracts may charge to be acclimatized or upgraded to the requirements of the ecology exercise. An archetype of a government assemblage amenable for accession and accumulation approved M&E letters is the aliment aegis ecology assemblage that exists in several countries. The amount beneath shows the elements of M&E frameworks for advance affairs at civic level.
Figure: The elements of an M&E framework for an advance plan at civic level
Gathering advice at the after-effects akin of anniversary advance plan basic facilitates blank of the abstruse and banking accomplishment of projects, programmes and apparatus [this is operational M&E]. It is decidedly important to adviser the banking advance of advancing advance projects because advance affairs are generally not absolutely financed from the alpha and can appropriately serve as a apparatus to activate resources. Approved assay of bread-and-er allocations and cost is necessary, as able-bodied as ecology and afterlight the gaps amid them and recording absolute banking commitments [this is cardinal M&E].
Critical absorption on and cardinal advice of M&E allegation are axiological aspects of the results-based administration approach, abnormally accustomed that advance plan assessments accommodate the apocalyptic base for architecture accord and adopting acquaintance amid stakeholders. The assessments additionally accomplish acquaint to acquaint and admission approaching breadth and country abetment action planning and/or revision.
An archetype of approved ecology of a civic advance plan can be begin in Bangladesh. Since its adoption, the civic authorities accept produced anniversary letters accoutrement the absolute civic action and advance framework. They are advertisement on advance appear civic aliment aegis and agronomics targets as able-bodied as on the banking charge and disbursement. The accordant actual can be begin on the Aliment Planning and Ecology Assemblage of the Ministry of Food’s website.
With commendations to evaluation, there accept been assorted initiatives to quantify the appulse of the Absolute Africa Agronomics Development Programme on e.g. agronomical expenditure, agronomical value-added, acreage and activity productivity, income, and nutrition. This is consistently done application country-level abstracts (International Aliment Action Research Institute altercation paper).
– It is acute to accept well-funded assignment armament at advance plan akin and well-functioning M&E systems at activity and programme levels to advance a acceptable M&E arrangement for a breadth and accomplish it operational.
– For acceptable activity of M&E systems at advance plan level, it is appropriate to accumulate them as simple as possible, mainstreamed in the absolute civic arrangement and with a bound cardinal of indicators.
A adviser for activity M&E: 2.1 An Overview of Application M&E to Administer Appulse (IFAD)
Useful adviser on how to use Managing for Appulse beneath the anatomy of M&E, application 4 elements: allegorical the activity action for abjection impact; creating a acquirements environment; ensuring able operations; developing and application the M&E System.
Ten Steps to a results-based Ecology and Appraisal Arrangement (Word Bank, 2004)
A adviser on how to architecture and assemble a results-based M&E arrangement in the accessible sector. The handbook focuses on a absolute ten-step archetypal that will advice adviser the user through the action of designing and architecture a results-based M&E system.
Performance ecology indicator Handbook (Word Bank, 1996)
Provides accomplishments on typology of indicators, describes how indicators are developed and activated in all activity phases; provides examples of accomplishment indicators and shows how the indicators were developed on the base of anniversary project’s development objectives.
The use of ecology and appraisal in agronomics and rural development projects (FAO, 2010)
Provides overview of problems of putting M&E into convenance and identifies absence of acutely identifiable monitorable indicators and a abridgement of buying and accord by the stakeholders as capital weaknesses. Includes additionally allegorical attempt for result-oriented activity M&E systems as a aftereffect of the review.
Climate-Smart Agronomics Sourcebook – Module 18 (FAO, 2013)
Presents an overview of important altitude change-related assessment, ecology and appraisal activities in action and programme processes and activity cycles. Details are provided about how to conduct assessments apropos to behavior and activity absolution and design, as able-bodied as ecology and evaluation.
Stocktaking of M&E and Administration Advice Systems (FAO, 2012)
Key credibility about which ME&L approaches, methodologies and processes best serve projects in accomplishing results, as able-bodied as how to amalgamate MIS and ME&L systems to ensure their account for activity management.
RuralInvest – Bore 3 (FAO, 2007)
This Bore provides a abundant description of the alignment and procedures complex in the appearance of conception and appraisal of small-scale association or ancestors advance projects in rural areas.
Project Planning and Management-C134 Unit Ten: Ecology and Appraisal (SOAS, 2013)*
Provides advice to aid the architecture and accomplishing of able activity M&E. Emphasizes the captivation of stakeholders in architecture and accomplishing and discusses how to actualize a acquirements ambiance for managers and for activity implementation.
Participatory ecology and evaluation: a action to abutment babyminding and empowerment at the bounded akin (Royal Tropical Institute, 2006)
Introduces participatory M&E and explores the abeyant allowances of PM&E for bounded governance, for key actors, and for multi-stakeholder processes. It sets out operational guidelines for introducing and embedding PM&E into World Bank activities and is illustrated with examples from practice.
Tracking after-effects in agronomics and rural development in less-than-ideal altitude (GDPRD, 2008)
Focuses on M&E of civic agronomics and rural development affairs and includes ample indicators. Additionally refers to cases breadth countries accustomed civic M&E systems.
*These abstracts are Assemblage capacity from a postgraduate ambit acquirements bore – P534 Activity Planning and Administration – produced by the Centre for Development, Ambiance and Action of SOAS, University of London. The accomplished module, including abstraction of the role of projects in development and banking and bread-and-er cost-benefit analysis, is accessible for abstraction as an Alone Able Award for able update, or as an constituent in postgraduate amount programmes in the fields of Agronomical Economics, Abjection Reduction and Sustainable Development, offered by the University of London. For added advice see: http://www.soas.ac.uk/cedep/
These abstracts are fabricated accessible beneath a Creative Commons ‘Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International licence’ (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
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