Gulfstream Aerospace anon will activate chump deliveries of its $24-million G280, a 3,600-nm-range cool midsize jet.
Although not new to the category—Gulfstream acquired the Galaxy (nee Israel Aerospace Astra IV) in 2001 and renamed it—the G200’s achievement was inferior to Bombardier’s able-bodied Challenger 300, which went on to accumulate about 400 sales in the accomplished decade. Nonetheless, G200 operators say their cartage admired the anchorage and the aircraft’s reliability. Gulfstream, forth with Galaxy Aerospace, succeeded in carrying added than 240 aircraft.
Still, to antidote the G200’s shortcomings, Gulfstream gave its almsman a new accession and appendage and replaced the 6,040-lb.-thrust Pratt & Whitney PW306A engines with a brace of Honeywell HTF7250G turbofans, anniversary rated at 7,624 lb. thrust, giving it the best thrust-to-weight arrangement and aerodrome achievement in the category. And it boasts a added tanks-full payload, 350 nm added ambit and bigger ammunition ability than its Canadian competitor.
Of according accent to operators, G280 has added anchorage aggregate than either Challenger 300 or G200, forth with a lower anchorage ambit and bargain anchorage complete levels. Its 120-cu.-ft. aft accoutrements alcove is the better in its chic and it is now attainable inflight because the G200’s aft accumulation ammunition catchbasin has been eliminated. G280’s anchorage has 19 windows—four added than G200.
Up front, there is large, full-service galley and a cockpit jump bench for the flight attendant. The aft bathroom has a exhaustion toilet, a aboriginal for a cool midsize aircraft. And all the way up front, the G280 appearance a PlaneView flight deck, which will be discussed added absolutely aback we outline the aerial characteristics after in this article.
Before demography to the air, it’s acceptable to agenda the authoritative milestones that accept been met. G280 has new CAA Israel and FAA Part 25 blazon certificates, and complies with Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 25 through Amendment 1-120, added A122. The European Aviation Assurance Agency CS-25 A2 blazon acceptance is in the works. The aircraft meets All-embracing Civil Aviation Organization Annex 16 and FAR Part 36 Stage 4 babble standards, forth with FAR Part 34 ammunition discharge and bankrupt discharge requirements.
The blooming aircraft is accumulated at Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) in Tel Aviv, adapted with a bear amalgamation and aureate to Gulfstream’s Dallas-Love Acreage ability for outfitting and painting. The G280’s wing—derived from the G550 airfoil with a hardly altered aberration administration and new large, avant-garde ambit winglets—has added ambit and 495 sq. ft. of area, 34% added than the G200 wing. Agnate to G550, architectonics cruise dispatch is Mach 0.80, up from Mach 0.75 for G200. That yields up to 29 added kt. accurate air dispatch (KTAS), abounding to barber 30 min. or added off London-New York flight time.
The beyond wing, forth with the accession centermost breadth catchbasin and feeders, additionally holds 20% added ammunition than the G200’s, enabling Gulfstream to compress the avant-garde abdomen catchbasin and annihilate the 5,515-lb.-capacity, 67-cu.-ft. accumulation tank, replacing it with a 1,130-lb.-capacity aft abdomen tank. Overall ammunition accommodation absolutely is 390 lb. beneath than the G200’s, but the more-efficient accession and new engines accomplish up for the difference.
The G280’s T-tail appendage appearance beyond breadth fin and stabilizers to handle the aircraft’s about 2-ton weight increase.
The flight-control arrangement of the new aircraft has little in accepted with that of G200 added than agnate pitch-control mechanisms and the stall-protection system. The roll-control system, for example, uses manually actuated ailerons with servo tabs that accommodate high-fidelity aerodynamic feel. Computer-controlled multi-function spoilers accommodate best of the beef bare for cycle control. The aftereffect is accustomed feel, abounding roll-control ascendancy and well-harmonized bend and cycle armament at the yoke.
G280 is adapted with a fly-wire-wire (FBW) adviser in abode of the manually actuated, boost-assisted arrangement on the G200.
In befitting with abiding Gulfstream architectonics practice, G280 has no arch bend high-lift devices. The abaft bend flaps are electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated.
The aircraft boasts an updated, absolutely breach buss electrical arrangement with added automated amount address compared to G200’s amalgam split/parallel buss architectonics that shares accepted emergency and hot array busses. Aboard G280, there are larboard and appropriate 28-volt-direct-current (VDC) 400A brushless generators, added a 28-VDC 400A abetting ability assemblage (APU) starter-generator rated for inflight use up to 40,000 ft. at bargain output. Left- and right-side 24 VDC 38AH acrimonious lead-acid batteries, added a standby battery, are standard.
The hydraulic arrangement has been adapted to accommodate added back-up for the FBW rudder. The larboard and appropriate abandon accept both engine-driven and electrically powered hydraulic pumps, agnate to Challenger 300. The architectonics provides the all-important ability back-up for the agenda FBW rudder.
The G280 has a new brake-by-wire arrangement with an auto-braking function, a aboriginal for this chic of business aircraft. The auto-braking arrangement has low, average and aerial deceleration levels, added a alone ascent off access for best braking.
The ice aegis arrangement has been afflicted significantly. Gone are the G200’s aeriform de-ice boots on the arch edges of the accession and accumbent stabilizer. G280 uses a bleed-air for acrimonious accession anti-ice.
Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics accommodate the courage of G280’s PlaneView cockpit. The capital apparatus animate appearance three 15-in. screens with cursor ascendancy accessories on the left- and right-side ledges and larboard and appropriate standby multifunction controllers [SMCs] in the glareshield panel. Gulfstream invented the SMCs to accommodate anniversary pilot with a full-function cyberbanking standby apparatus arrangement that doubles as a affectation and analysis ascendancy box. The 3 X 4-in. full-color LCD screens are in direct, head-up appearance of anniversary flight crewmember.
Two multifunction ascendancy affectation units in the centermost animate accommodate a flight administration arrangement (FMS), radio affability and added functions. The burke division accumulation that sends cyberbanking commands to the agent Fadecs has servos that move the throttles in acknowledgment to auto-throttle commands.
Other accepted appearance accommodate amateur VHF comm and bifold nav radios, bifold ambit barometer equipment, bifold accumulated Access S/Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Arrangement (TCAS) transceivers, bifold FMS with 12-channel wide-area-augmentation/satellite-based-augmentation-system GPS receivers, bifold agenda air computers and bifold solid-state attitude-heading advertence systems, forth with a distinct Multiscan acclimate radar, automated administration finder receiver, HF transceiver, triple-frequency emergency locator transmitter, radio altimeter, 120-min. cockpit-voice/flight-data recorders and a breadth acquaintance and admonishing arrangement (TAWS). A VHF comm radio is data-link able for air cartage ascendancy functions such as Europe’s Link 2000.
The commuter basement breadth is 17 in. best than the G200’s because the accumulation ammunition catchbasin has been removed.
Buyers accept a best of autogenous configurations with connected attic plans, cabinetry, anchorage sidewalls and systems. Eight-, nine- and 10-passenger configurations are available, anniversary accepting a avant-garde four-seat club section.
About bisected the buyers autonomous for an aft breadth with two adverse chairs on the appropriate ancillary with a 6.7-ft.-long, three-place bassinet on the left. Others alleged a four-place appointment alignment on the larboard ancillary of the aft anchorage with the three-place bassinet on the right. The activity bulk is stored beneath the divan.
All bench pairs bend into berths. The bassinet may be continued into the alley to anatomy a 31-in.-wide berth. The aircraft can beddy-bye four on continued flights in absolutely or near-flat berths.
The anchorage administration arrangement is advised to use off-the-shelf iPod Touch claimed agenda administration (PDA), loaded with a aggregation supplied app, as the alien control. Two iPod Touch PDAs are included with the aircraft. The adept bench has an iPod Touch advancing base for charging as able-bodied as an Iridium accessory buzz communications handset.
The anchorage audio/visual arrangement offers bifold 160-gigabyte media servers that anniversary can abundance 80-100 high-definition movies. There additionally are laptop ports for inflight business presentations.
Standard accessories includes a 19-in. avant-garde bulkhead LCD adviser and a proprietary affective map arrangement with flight information, high-resolution accessory imagery, geographic borders and commuter conference videos.
Belt into the larboard bench of G280, as we did recently, and it is anon bright that the Plane-View280 flight accouter puts this aircraft on par with the best of Gulfstream’s large-cabin aircraft. Brian Dickerson, the company’s chief assembly analysis pilot, was in the appropriate bench and Bob Wilson, midsize Gulfstream aircraft beginning analysis pilot, rode forth as assurance pilot.
Dickerson explained that G280 is the alone aircraft in this chic to accept both full-authority auto throttles and an auto-braking system. It is additionally the alone cool midsize aircraft in accepted assembly to activity an alternative head-up affectation and an added eyes system, although these were not installed on the demonstrator.
Dickerson and Wilson able the aircraft and they had the APU active aback we accustomed at Gulfstream’s access at its Dallas-Love Acreage ability (elev. 487 ft.). Outside, the temperature was 33C/91F; central the aircraft it was 70F.
Pre-start checks were straightforward, application the standby multifunction ambassador to run through arrest warning, TCAS and TAWS tests, added ambience the landing acreage elevation. The FMS achievement database was not yet certified, so Wilson computed ascent abstracts for a 32,000-lb. ascent weight and flaps 20 deg. He affected 106 KIAS for V1 ascent accommodation speed, 112 KIAS for circling and 124 KIAS for the V2 OEI (one-engine-inoperative) ascent assurance speed. En avenue ascend dispatch was 171 KIAS. Application those speeds and opting for a “bleeds off” takeoff, we computed ascent acreage ambit at 3,725 ft.
Rolling out of the chocks, we begin the nosewheel council and new brake-by-wire arrangement to be bland and precise.
Once austere for ascent on Aerodrome 13R, we avant-garde the throttles amid and affianced the auto-throttle system. Rpm avant-garde to 90.6% N1, accouterment aloof beneath 7,400 lb. of advance on anniversary engine. With a weight-to-thrust arrangement of 2.16:1, dispatch was spirited.
Rotation force was abstinent and cycle force was able-bodied harmonized with bend force. The ailerons and elevator accept around no credible on-center stiction, authoritative the aircraft absolutely agreeable to duke fly. In addition, advance changes account actual little bend change. Some pilots may not appetite to abandon ascendancy to the autopilot, but the auto-throttle arrangement is so bland and absolute that there is little acumen not to use it.
After takeoff, the aeriform arrangement automatically switched from APU drain air to agent drain air. At that point, we anchored the APU.
Following a 250 KIAS/Mach 0.75 dispatch schedule, the aircraft climbed westward from Dallas-Love to Flight Akin (FL) 450 in 21 min., including a 3-min. ATC delay. That is absorbing as the alfresco air temperatures (OAT) were mostly ISA (international accepted atmosphere) 15-17C until we climbed aloft FL300. At FL450, though, OAT cooled off to ISA-5C. Ammunition bake for the ascend was about 1,000 lb.
We arrested cruise achievement at Mach 0.80 accustomed cruise and Mach 0.84 accelerated cruise at FL450 at ISA-5-6C. At a weight of 30,800 lb., ammunition bake was 1,510 lb. per hr. (pph) at accustomed cruise and 1,810 pph at HSC. The flight chiral indicates the aircraft’s all-embracing cruise dispatch at this weight is Mach 0.79 and ammunition breeze should be about 1,400 pph. At Mach 0.84, it predicts 1,778 pph at that weight and OAT.
The aircraft was buffet-free up to a 40-deg. bend of bank, agnate to 1.3g. At best ascent weight, the aircraft has 1.2g of cafe allowance from Mach 0.75-0.80 at FL450. Cafe allowance drops acutely aloft accustomed cruise speed.
We descended to 16,000 ft. for airwork southeast of Abilene, Texas, application abandoned advance and the capricious position dispatch brakes for drag. The air brakes aftermath actual balmy pitch-up aback absolutely continued and aloof slight airframe boom that is absurd to afflict passengers.
When akin at low altitude, we flew a brace of abrupt turns. It is accessible to advance ambit application the primary flight display’s flight aisle brand and airspeed trend vector. Bend force is moderately heavy, thereby preventing over control. Cycle response, with the advice of the fly-by-wire cycle spoilers, is crisp, but cycle accomplishment is moderate, afresh preventing over control.
Dickerson aing approved the low-speed aegis system. If the aircraft is slowed to 72% of the bend of advance (AOA) at which the arrest admonishing stick pusher fires, the auto-throttle arrangement engages and ability is avant-garde to anticipate the stall. Up to best accessible thrust, the auto-throttle arrangement will not acquiesce bend of advance to beat 78% of stick-pusher AOA.
We again flew clean, flaps-20 access and landing agreement arrest approaches to stickpusher at weights of 30,150-30,250 lb. For the three configurations, arrest admonishing stickshaker again arrest blockage stickpusher, respectively, were triggered at 139 KIAS and 131 KIAS; 113 KIAS and 106 KIAS; and 107 KIAS and 101 KIAS. Aircraft behavior during anniversary of the assignment was actual benign.
Next, it was off to Abilene’s Aerodrome 35R for arrangement work, starting with the apparatus landing arrangement approach. Wilson alleged Vref at 128 KIAS for the aircraft’s estimated 29,600-lb. landing weight, accouterment a 23% allowance over stall. The auto braking arrangement was set to average deceleration for affirmation purposes.
We flew the access at Vref 5 until bridge the fence. The almost ample accession and absence of arch edge/Kreuger flaps accommodate appreciably added arena aftereffect cushioning than in the G200. We floated bottomward the aerodrome for a few hundred added anxiety afore affecting down. The auto-braking activity was actual bland and progressive, and the aircraft slowed to abstinent auto dispatch in about 2,500 ft.
To sample G280’s engine-out ascent performance, Wilson computed speeds of 101 KIAS for V1, 109 KIAS for circling and 121 KIAS for V2. Aloof aloft 101 KIAS, Dickerson backward the appropriate burke to idle, assuming an agent failure. Alone ablaze larboard adviser burden was bare to ascendancy yaw because of the able FBW adviser system. But the servo arrangement confused the adviser pedals abounding to accomplish it credible to our anxiety that the larboard agent was bearing essentially added advance than the right.
The aircraft was accessible to ascendancy throughout the apish OEI access and landing. We acclaimed that advance acknowledgment to burke movement is actual beeline and anticipated with the HTF7250 turbofans, appropriately dispatch was calmly controlled. That’s a active adverse to the burke acknowledgment of the G200’s PW306As.
After landing, we taxied aback to sample the aircraft’s auto-braking alone ascent feature. During our apish ascent roll, Dickerson alleged “Abort! Abort!” aloof over 80 KIAS. We airtight the throttles to idle. The arena spoilers absolutely deployed and the auto braking responded with best braking effort. There was the aboriginal addiction against triggering the anti-skid system, but the aircraft decelerated smartly to a stop with no accident of directional stability.
Returning to Dallas-Love Field, we calmly chock-full the aircraft in the aboriginal 3,800 ft. of runway.
Conclusions? G280 delivers adventurous performance, accomplished administration qualities and incomparable avionics capabilities in this chic of business aircraft. Meanwhile, its ambit and dispatch capabilities are on a par with far added big-ticket large-cabin aircraft.
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