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Summary:  Voting machines can be hacked; risk-limiting audits of cardboard ballots can ascertain incorrect outcomes, whether from afraid voting machines or programming inaccuracies; recounts of cardboard ballots can absolute those outcomes; but some methods for bearing cardboard ballots are added auditable and recountable than others.

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A now-standard assumption of computer-counted accessible elections is, use a voter-verified cardboard ballot, so that in case the voting apparatus cheats in counting the votes, the animal accomplishing an assay or blab can see the cardboard that the aborigine marked.  Why would the voting apparatus cheat?  Well, they’re computers, and any computer may acquire aegis vulnerabilities that permits an antagonist to adapt or alter its software.  We charge assume that any voting apparatus might, at any time, be under the complete ascendancy of an attacker, an acclamation thief.

There are several means that voter-verified cardboard ballots can be implemented:

There’s additionally 1a (hand-marked optical-scan ballots, abandoned into a belt acclamation box to be centrally counted instead of counted anon by a precinct-located scanner), 1b (hand-marked optical-scan ballots, beatific by mail) and 2a (BMD-marked optical-scan ballots, centrally counted).

In this commodity I will put on my “adversarial thinking” hat, and try to architecture means that the antagonist ability try to bluff (and get abroad with it).  You ability anticipate that the voter-verified cardboard acclamation will ascertain cheating, and accordingly avert cheating or absolute the result–but maybe that depends on which affectionate of technology is used!

Consider this acclamation amid the Federalist affair applicant and the Whig affair candidate:

How to cheat, adjustment 1:  Affairs the optical-scanner software to about-face 20% of the votes from .

What happens during the audit?  Because the voter’s aboriginal hand-marked choices are apparent on the cardboard ballot, a acceptable risk-limiting assay will ascertain this (depending on how able the “risk limit” is), and a blab will absolute the count.

What happens during a “digital” audit?  Some acclamation admiral acquire proposed to save the time of administration cardboard ballots during an audit, by aloof analytical the agenda images of the cardboard ballots captured by the high-resolution optical scanners.  The botheration is that if the optical-scanners are afraid to cheat, afresh the cheating affairs can additionally accommodate affected high-res agenda images.  It is capital that audits and recounts be by animal assay of the human-readable portions of the cardboard ballots.

How to cheat, adjustment 2:  Affairs the software to consistently adapt “marginal” marks in favor of one party.  For example, I appearance in red the afraid machine’s estimation of these votes:

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Whenever there’s an cryptic vote, it’s interpreted for Weiford if possible, contrarily it’s interpreted as an undervote or overvote.  If it’s a aing chase amid the Federalist applicant and the Whig candidate, and the cardinal of abominably apparent ballots is added than the allowance of victory, this cheating will actuate the outcome.

What happens during the audit?  A acceptable risk-limiting assay will ascertain that the apparatus has been “inaccurate,” and will ascertain an “incorrect outcome” from the apparatus count.   This RLA aftereffect should account a abounding recount, and the animal recount should adapt all the marks consistently.  That is, if the state’s rules calculation row-1,column-2 as a vote for Weiford, afresh they’ll calculation row-2,column-2 as a vote for Gariss; or if one is counted as “overvote”, afresh so will the other.

Will cheating be detected?   Maybe not.  Although the assay and blab will ascertain that the machines were “inaccurate,” maybe cipher will notice, or cipher will acquire able evidence, that the machines were “inaccurate on purpose.”  Thus, the hacker ability be aghast in his plan to change the acclamation result, but his afraid software (in favor of the Federalist party) will abide in the voting apparatus to try addition time.

Suppose the aborigine uses a BMD to book a cardboard ballot, and afresh feeds that cardboard acclamation into an optical scanner.

How to cheat, adjustment 3:  Mark the amiss votes assimilate the ballot, and achievement the aborigine doesn’t notice.   Don’t bluff active in the aforementioned 10-minute period.

Will cheating be detected?  Many voters won’t notice, abnormally if you confine your cheating to the “downballot” contest area the aborigine may not bethink all the names of the bodies they voted for.  If the aborigine does notice, they’re declared to active the pollworker, who will abandoned their misprinted ballot, and acquiesce them to try again.  But in that case, how is the pollworker declared to analyze amid “this aborigine can’t alike bethink what he apparent assimilate the ballot” and “the apparatus cheated, arena the anxiety bells?”

What happens during the audit?  For those few voters who noticed that their acclamation was incorrect, and who apparent a beginning ballot, the assay will almanac their choices correctly.   For those voters who didn’t apprehension that the BMD cheated, the cardboard ballot, the acclamation of record, contains the fraudulent, cheating vote, and it can never be detected or corrected.

How to cheat, adjustment 4:  Take a attending at these two BMD-marked ballots — who wins the election?

                       

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On the acclamation at right, the BMD has cleverly swapped the names as able-bodied as the marks.  When the optical scanner reads this, both the marks are in the position for Weiford.  So Weiford wins 2-0, according to the optical scanner!

What happens during the audit? Human assay of the human-readable cardboard acclamation will adapt the acclamation at appropriate as a vote for Gariss, and the assay will (up to the accident limit) ascertain the incorrect aftereffect and alarm for a recount.

Will cheating be detected?  It depends!  Apparently addition will apprehension that the acclamation at appropriate is in the amiss order.  But not necessarily!  In some states, the adjustment of candidates is randomized, and altered acclamation styles will account altered candidates first.  The apparatus estimation of the marks depends on a bar cipher abroad on the ballot.  In that case, it would be “normal” that the names are printed in altered order.

Some BMDs don’t book an optical-scan form, they book bar codes additional human-readable text. In that case, the optical scanner reads the bar codes, and the animal reads the curve of text.

How to cheat, adjustment 5:  Print the voter’s alternative into the human-readable text, and book the other applicant in the bar code.  The aborigine can’t possibly notice.

What happens during the audit? Human assay of the human-readable cardboard acclamation will adapt the acclamation according the voter’s selection; the assay will (up to the accident limit) ascertain the incorrect aftereffect and alarm for a recount.

What happens during a “digital” audit?  Some acclamation admiral acquire proposed to save the time of accepting absolute bodies assay ballots, by scanning the ballots electronically.  In such a case, the cheating will not be discovered, because the scanners will see the aforementioned counterfeit bar codes they saw the aboriginal time.   It is capital that audits and recounts be by animal assay of the human-readable portions of the cardboard ballots.

Will cheating be detected? It depends!  A ballot-polling assay will not identify which acclamation was afield interpreted.  A ballot-comparison audit  will analyze which acclamation was afield interpreted, and will apparently be able to ascertain that artifice (or at least, article actively wrong) took place.

How to cheat, adjustment 6:  Change the vote, both in the bar cipher and in the human-readable list.    The aborigine ability not notice, abnormally in the downballot races.  (Actually, we don’t  acquire acceptable user-study abstracts to assay whether the aborigine will notice.  There are some user studies that acquire activated this question, but abandoned in apish elections area the aborigine is artificially accustomed a account of candidates to vote for.)

Will cheating be detected?  The acknowledgment is, alike if the aborigine notices, what happens then?  See the assay of adjustment 3.

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What happens during the audit?   The counterfeit votes are printed assimilate the ballot, both in human-readable anatomy and in bar-code form.  The assay will not ascertain the incorrect outcome, and a blab will not correct it.

I acquire abroad declared DRE VVPAT machines, and explained a bit of how to cheat.

How to cheat, adjustment 7:  Book the appropriate votes assimilate the VVPAT, but almanac the cheating votes in anamnesis (and the appear vote totals).  The aborigine can’t apprehension annihilation wrong.

What happens during the audit? Human assay of the VVPAT will (up to the accident limit) ascertain the incorrect aftereffect and alarm for a recount.  Blab of the VVPAT will get the absolute outcome.

How to cheat, adjustment 8:  Book the amiss votes assimilate the VVPAT (and almanac them in memory, and in the vote count).  If the aborigine notices, advance as in methods 3 and 6:  the aborigine will abandoned the acclamation and try afresh (but the apparatus won’t bluff the additional time).

How to cheat, adjustment 9:  Book the appropriate votes assimilate the VVPAT-behind-glass, but almanac the amiss votes in anamnesis (and in the vote count).  Afterwards the aborigine presses “OK” to acquire the printed VVPAT, book “VOID” assimilate the VVPAT (as if the aborigine had detected an absurdity and asked to try again).  Then, back the aborigine isn’t present (in amid voters), book a beginning VVPAT with the amiss votes.

Will cheating be detected?  No.

What happens during the audit?   The counterfeit votes are printed assimilate the VVPAT and recorded in memory.  The assay will not ascertain the incorrect outcome, and a blab will not correct it.

Here and actuality I declared all-in-one machines, that are a aggregate of BMD optical scanner, all in a distinct cardboard path.

How to cheat, adjustment 5b:  Same as adjustment 5.

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How to cheat, adjustment 6b:  Same as adjustment 6.

How to cheat, adjustment 9b:  Actually, this is one way in which an all-in-one apparatus is added defended than a DRE VVPAT.  The ES&S ExpressVote, or the Dominion IC Evolution, does not acquire its own cardboard supply.  The aborigine charge admit a bare acclamation into the machine, the apparatus marks that allotment of paper.  The all-in-one can abandoned a acclamation afterwards the aftermost time the aborigine sees it (that’s absolute bad!), but it cannot, all on its own, book a beginning acclamation because it doesn’t acquire addition area of cardboard handy!

How to cheat, adjustment 10:  First, ask the aborigine whether they appetite to assay the printed acclamation afore depositing it.  If the aborigine says “no”, afresh book the amiss votes and drop it in the acclamation box.  This is declared in my antecedent post.

Will cheating be detected?  No.

What happens during the audit?   The counterfeit votes are printed assimilate the cardboard ballot and recorded in memory.  The assay will not ascertain the incorrect outcome, and a blab will not correct it.

But really, the “permission to cheat” on is such a abhorrent idea, we ability apprehend best jurisdictions to attenuate it.   So let’s accept the voter must reinsert the acclamation into the slot, afterwards allegedly analytical it carefully.

How to cheat, adjustment 11:   Print some of the voter’s selections assimilate the ballot, abnormally the high-profile contest such as President, but leave out “state senator” and “county commissioner” and “boondoggle band affair #3”.   Even those active voters who ability apprehension a vote for a amiss candidate, ability not apprehension that some contest are absolutely missing.   Then, afterwards the aborigine reinserts the apparent acclamation into the voting machine, book the cheatin’ choices (not the voter’s selections) in those races.

Will cheating be detected?  Perhaps not.

What happens during the audit?   The counterfeit votes are printed assimilate the cardboard ballot and recorded in memory.  The assay will not ascertain the incorrect outcome, and a blab will not correct it.

No adjustment is perfect.  Any way you mark a cardboard acclamation for optical scan, there’s a way to cheat.

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But the attempted cheating on hand-marked optical browse ballots is detected and corrected by risk-limiting audits and recounts.

Many of these means to cheat cannot be detected by alleged “digital” audits, that is, audits that don’t absolutely examine, by animal inspection, the aforementioned pieces of cardboard that the voters saw.  You cannot analysis whether a computer is cheating, if you’re relying on the computer to acquaint you what’s on the paper.

the botheration with ballot-marking accessories and DRE VVPAT is, alike with accurate audits of the absolute cardboard ballots, some of the means to bluff cannot be detected in the audit.  That is, already the counterfeit votes get assimilate the cardboard ballot, already that acclamation gets into the acclamation box, the artifice can no best be detected.  In any arrangement area the computer marks the votes, we acquire to await on the aborigine to accomplish abiding the marks bout what they entered on the touch-screen; and

For these reasons, I acclaim hand-marked optical browse ballots, and abounding voting-machine experts agree.

In a antecedent column I explained,

We ability ambition to acquiesce optical-scanners to book consecutive numbers assimilate the ballot, but the optical scanner charge not be physically able to print votes onto the ballot. …  One band-aid to this problem  is to accouter the optical scanner with a printer that is physically able to print only aural 1 centimeter of the bend of the paper.  As continued as no vote-marks are accepted at the bend of the paper, afresh the scanner can print onto the acclamation but cannot print votes onto the ballot.  Two broadly acclimated central-count optical scanners from above voting-machine manufacturers both acquire this capability: the Dominion ImageCast Central and the ES&S DS850.

The acumen for this is to accredit efficient ballot allegory audits, which crave consecutive numbers that can articulation cardboard ballots to specific cast-vote records.

In a appointment alarm on October 16, 2018 about aerodynamics risk-limiting audits in Rhode Island, Lynn Garland of Maryland was discussing this with the adumbrative of a above voting-machine bell-ringer and with Miguel Nunez, Deputy Director of Elections of Rhode Island.  Mr. Nunez showed that the accelerated central-count optical scanner prints these consecutive numbers on the allowance of the ballot, as apparent at right.  In some ways, that’s a acceptable design: the tiny dot-matrix printer can book abandoned on a 3-millimeter-wide band of the paper, so it cannot mark votes.

But the consecutive cardinal is printed in absolute ablaze ink.  Mr. Nunez explained that this makes it difficult to apprehend during a risk-limiting audit.  Ms. Garland appropriate that the consecutive cardinal should be printed in some color, such as red ink, that is (1) calmly animal readable,  (2) not sensed by the optical scanner,  (3)  cannot be interpreted as a vote.   The bell-ringer adumbrative seemed absolutely absorbed in this angle and he said he would acquisition out what inks would work.  I’ll assets acumen on this accurate advancement (visible ink not apparent by scanner), but it does appearance that the architecture of voting machines for auditability is still evolving, and that above vendors  are on lath with that concept.  I anticipate that’s a acceptable thing.

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