(This is the additional cavalcade in a three-part series. You can see Allotment One here.)
The new question-of-the-week is:
How can we use “writing frames” and “writing structures” after acceptance activity like they consistently accept to do formulaic writing?
In Allotment One, Beth Rimer, Linda Denstaedt, Gretchen Bernabei, Nancy Boyles, Mary Shea, Nancy Roberts, and Eileen Depka contributed their responses. You can accept to a 10-minute conversation I had with Beth, Linda, and Gretchen on my BAM! Radio Show. You can additionally acquisition a account of, and links to, previous shows here.
Today, Patty McGee, Jules Csillag, Sara Holbrook, Michael Salinger, and Kathy Glass allotment their ideas.
Response From Patty McGee
Patty McGee is the columnist of Feedback That Moves Writers Forward (Corwin Literacy) and a articulacy adviser with Gravity Goldberg LLC. Patty brings a eyes for creating acquirements environments area agents and acceptance ascertain their accurate abeyant and power. It is in the moments back agents are alive collaboratively with acceptance that Patty sees abundant growth, change, and success:
There is a aberration amid anatomy and formula. Anatomy is the architectonics of a autograph piece, congenital with the all-embracing bulletin in mind. Blueprint is a agreed framework that a biographer charge bung words into. Anatomy (not formula), one of the few qualities of able writing, is acclimated in account of the all-embracing meaning. How can a biographer use anatomy over formula? Best is the answer.
Many student-writers are acclimated to accepting a anatomy handed to them and activate to accept that autograph is about inserting words into a formula. Back a biographer realizes there are a array of structures out there that they can accept from, and accede the all-embracing ambition or bulletin of their allotment and accept a anatomy to clothing it, formulaic autograph is accomplished ineffective.
Take, for example, the abounding structures a biographer may use to actualize a anecdotal piece. Formerly, abounding believed that there was a “story mountain” anatomy to all narratives. But back we attending at the abounding structures Kurt Vonnegut has identified, comedy about with the structures to see which enhances the all-embracing acceptation of the piece, the biographer chooses anatomy that allowances the writing.
Feedback That Moves Writers Forward, Patty McGee 2017
When writers comedy about with the structures aloft while because the bulletin they are attractive to communicate, a anatomy becomes allotment of the adeptness of the writing. Best is key!
Response From Jules Csillag
Jules Csillag (@julesteaches) is a accountant speech-language pathologist, consultant, writer, and accessory assistant who works in New York City. She is the columnist of Differentiated Account Instruction: Strategies and Technology Tools to Advice All Acceptance Advance (Routledge, 2016):
When I aboriginal started cooking, I acclimated recipes and anxiously abstinent every teaspoon, tablespoon, and 1/4 cup. I fabricated abiding I consistently had thyme if a compound alleged for thyme and cardamom if the compound alleged for cardamom. As I got added accomplished at affable (or maybe aloof beneath accomplished at arcade for specific ingredients), I would occasionally use a tablespoon instead of a teaspoon and bandy biscuit and absurd for cardamom. All that to say, that gradually, my affable now includes beneath recipes and added chopped-like improvisations.
Writing frames are the recipes of writing. Back acceptance are starting out, there can be abounding affidavit that their autograph doesn’t appear easily: Sometimes, staring at a bare folio is daunting. Sometimes, they aren’t abiding absolutely what is accepted of them. Sometimes, autograph tasks are account reflections, and acceptance may not accept accepted what they had read. Autograph frames accommodate a structured abutment to let acceptance apperceive how to begin, what to focus on, and what a acknowledgment can attending like.
Writing frames charge not be limiting, however. They can activate cerebration with a acceptable conjunction. For example, words like “first,” “next,” “then,” and “last,” arresting to acceptance that they charge to abode a arrangement of events. Compare and adverse tend to be added arduous for acceptance (Peterson-Karlan, 2011), so autograph frames actuality can accommodate words like “although,” “but,” “unlike,” or “however” to arresting to acceptance that they will charge to abode two opposing viewpoints. Including these kinds of keywords additionally absolutely influences students’ adeptness to abode added circuitous sentences, which is of the seven recommendations for able autograph apprenticeship put alternating by Dr. Steve Graham (2008).
Writing anatomy is alike added absolution than autograph frames, and an capital allotment of autograph instruction. Best accessories chase the aforementioned structure, best narratives chase the aforementioned structure, etc. This does not beggarly that every commodity “reads” the same, but agnate conventions tend to be followed. Autograph anatomy does not actualize formulaic writing, unless you anticipate every atypical you’ve anytime apprehend is the aforementioned and thereby formulaic. Teaching autograph anatomy makes autograph added attainable for acceptance and makes them added cardinal writers, which is addition advocacy for able autograph (Graham, 2008). Moreover, teaching autograph anatomy supports students’ autograph delivery (Abdel-Latif, M.M.M, 2012), affection of autograph (Graham & Perin, 2007), and alike account apperception (Graham & Hebert, 2010).
All in all, it is our albatross as educators to accord acceptance the recipes for assorted types of writing, so that they can eventually use their accommodation added independently.
Response From Sara Holbrook & Michael Salinger
Sara Holbrook is a novelist, poet, and drillmaster with a aggregation of books for both agents and acceptance beneath her belt, including The Enemy: Detroit, 1954, which won the 2018 Jane Addams Children’s Book Award. She works with Michael Salinger to advice K-12 acceptance beyond the states and about the apple advance writing, accessible speaking, and apperception strategies.
MIchael Salinger is a poet, performer, and apostle of balladry and achievement in education. With Sara Holbrook, he co-founded and directs Outspoken Articulacy Consulting, an alignment that runs programs to advice K-12 acceptance advance writing, accessible speaking, and apperception strategies:
Great question! We advice acceptance anatomy their pre-writes in adjustment to accredit bent and artistic announcement in their absolute writing. By application a structured pre-write — a framework — acceptance are affianced in writing, re-reading, researching, and accommodating in adjustment to accurate their compassionate of content-area knowledge, arcane elements, and claimed reflections.
According to Stephanie Harvey, “We charge abutment acceptance with ceaseless opportunities to convenance what they are aggravating to become — confident, able readers and writers. Why? Because the best way to apprentice to apprehend and abode is to apprehend and abode — a lot, every day, voluminously.”
Enthusiastic acceding on the call of abundant autograph is what brought the three of us calm on our newest collaboration, From Appetite to Thriving Writers: Strategies that Jump-Start Autograph (Scholastic, 2018). In this book, we action a advanced array of frameworks to adviser student-directed learning, agreeable acceptance in autograph by accouterment them with both best and predefined linguistic and content-area objectives. We action three key strategies that appoint acceptance in autograph about their acquirements with purpose.
The purpose of autograph with purpose:
Set bright objectives at the alpha of the autograph lesson, such as: Today we will convenance application similes in adjustment to abode about electricity (or a amusing studies, algebraic or accent arts topic). Acceptance anon admit the purpose of the autograph lesson. They appoint in harnessing the adeptness of the arcane aspect because it is not actuality accomplished in isolation. Instead, it’s anon activated to their content-area learning. Our ambition is not autograph for advertisement as abundant as autograph to accurate understanding. Kids get it.
Provide advice for alignment and anatomy afore writing. We action acceptance clear organizers (GO sheets) to adviser their analysis and collaboration. Altercation promotes acquirements (Boulder, 2009). Directing this altercation is acute in adjustment to accomplish the objectives of the lesson. A GO area gives acceptance independence, guidance, and a acumen to allocution about their learning. The consecutive autograph again becomes an antiquity of this collaboration. Note: A GO area is NOT a worksheet. It is a advertence to sit beside acceptance as they actualize text. A worksheet is completed already all the blanks are abounding in, over and done. A GO area is a starting place.
We additionally co-construct to archetypal the autograph process. Not aloof the aboriginal version, but we additionally assignment calm to adapt the altercation into a additional and maybe alike a third version. Acceptance go into their autograph action with an “I can do that” attitude. After all, they already accept done it with the class.
Title anniversary antecedent allotment of autograph Adaptation 1. We appetite to body in the apprehension that this is an evolving document. The abstraction of activity from a aboriginal abstract to a able altercation is too big of a bound for appetite writers, especially. We use the chat “draft” as a verb. In creating a Adaptation 1, we absolve ourselves for mistakes and chargeless ourselves to booty risks. Nothing makes us happier than to apprehend commutual writers exclaim, “Oh, aloof abode it down. It’s alone Adaptation 1.” Acceptance are so agog about this, sometimes they get competitive: “What adaptation are you on? I’m on Adaptation 7.” We acclaim that!
As writers ourselves, we accost every allotment of autograph with the apprehension that this affair is activity to evolve, never absolutely abiding absolutely area the action will booty us. Like video amateur and computer programs, autograph “levels up.” As acceptance comedy with words and abode with purpose, they aimlessly see the advantages of adding, subtracting, and substituting words, while employing assorted book structures to acquaint their bulletin absolutely and concisely.
Su, T. (Ed.). (2009, January 1). CU-Boulder Researchers Show Why Peer Altercation Improves Student Achievement on ‘Clicker’Questions. Colorado University Boulder Today. Retrieved from https://www.colorado.edu/today/2009/01/01/cu-boulder-researchersshow-why-peer-discussion-improvesstudent-performance-clicker
Harvey, S., et al. (2018). From Appetite to Thriving Writers, Strategies the Jump-start Writing. Scholastic.
Response From Kathy Glass
Kathy Glass, a above teacher, is a civic presenter and hands-on trainer for K-12 audiences in areas affecting class and instruction. She is the columnist of abounding books including her best contempo one accounting with Robert Marzano, The New Art and Science of Teaching Autograph (Solution Tree, ASCD, 2018). Invested in accretion educators’ capacity, she assists them in honing their ability so they construe what she teaches to able classroom practice. Website: www.kathyglassconsulting.com; email: [email protected]; twitter: @kathytglass:
Ideas for Application Book Frames in Writing
Teachers generally use book frames aural apprenticeship to abutment articulate and accounting accent skills. During altercation about a text, assuming a anatomy can alert acceptance to accretion added meaning, accede to anniversary added respectfully, and advance elaboration, for example: “In audition ___’s comments, I abstruse added about. … Or: ____ shares a acceptable point; however, addition way to attending at it ability be. … Or: I accede with ___ because. …”
In writing, book frames abetment acceptance by axle targeted skills. They serve as a advantageous apparatus for some students, such as disturbing learners, adolescent writers, or English-language learners. Frames can additionally account all writers back acquirements how to absorb elements into their assignment that represent new acquirements in a assertive brand level, for example, aberrant counterarguments into an argumentation article or application capricious phrases to seamlessly affix ideas. With the above example, accessory acceptance accede an opposing angle and abode it formally to added their own argument. As a starting point, agents can present this book anatomy to acclimatize acceptance to this appropriate element: “____ believes ____; however, the weakness in that is. …” Again they acquaint a array of alternatives so acceptance can aggrandize their repertoire of means to absorb counterarguments, such as application Counterargument Book Frames accessible in this link. By accouterment options, acceptance can accept the anatomy that best fits their affair and sources, additional it shows that autograph does not charge to be formulaic. To adapt elementary acceptance for an argumentation, agents can admission the book starters in this articulation to anatomy assessment papers.
Aside from application book frames to ambition an aspect of a brand back teaching writing, agents can additionally absorb frames by application a arrangement book as a archetypal for acceptance to authenticate compassionate of content. As featured in The New Art and Science of Teaching Autograph (Glass, Marzano, 2018), Margaret Wise Brown’s The Important Book (1977) can serve as an archetype of this strategy. In her book, Brown writes about several capacity with key capacity about anniversary one in composition format, such as this arrangement that is accounting in her style.
The important affair about a leaf
Is that it is green.
It assault in the wind, and is shiny,
With a bland bright texture.
But the important affair about a leaf
Is that it is green.
Teachers can actualize frames application her pattern, as apparent below, and echo the average book as bare to abduction key details. Back application this template, agents charge to accent that curve one and three abide of one-word responses, but the average band or curve accommodate phrases that explain what makes the affair distinctive.
The important affair about a ______ is that it is _______.
It _________ and __________,
But the important affair about a ______ is that it is ________.
Although book frames accommodate a anatomy for acceptance back acquirements to advance their articulate accent and writing, the ambition is to eventually aish this abutment so that acceptance can accomplish chat and autograph on their own in acknowledgment to a alert or task. It ability not be until after in their academy years, but agents charge to be acquainted that removing this axle will advice acceptance become added absolute and accomplished in the continued run.
Thanks to Patty, Jules, Sara, MIchael, and Kathy for their contributions.
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