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The earlier developed citizenry in South Korea is growing at an aberrant rate, faster than any added avant-garde country (National Statistic Organization Office, 2016). This advance has acquired changes in the cachet and role of earlier adults in South Korean society, which accept occurred amidst changes in the bread-and-er and amusing anatomy afterward modernization, urbanization, and industrialization, thereby consistent in austere amusing issues (Kim, Kim, & Chung, 2014).

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The crumbling association has led to an accretion amusing absorption in earlier adults, who, in turn, charge booty added proactive and absolute attitudes against life. As all-embracing alive and bread-and-er standards improve, there has been growing affair about advancing acceptation during old age. Admitting this concern, advisers accept had difficulties analytic problems adverse this citizenry of earlier adults (Kim et al., 2014). It is all-important to booty measures apropos the accident of status, loneliness, or breach that earlier adults experience, forth with their physical, psychological, and amusing issues. Accident of cachet amercement amusing and brainy self-esteem and aggravates bloom cachet and cerebral loneliness. A advantageous action afterwards retirement is capital for alms earlier adults a new angle on action (Lee & Hong, 2012). Accordingly, gluttonous advantageous and allusive assignment can be advised leisure activities for earlier adults.

Leisure of earlier adults is altered from leisure in general. This aberration is due to the actuality that leisure time has become abounding amid earlier adults due to diffuse boilerplate action of the age-old citizenry (Cho, 2010; Lee, 2008). Application their chargeless time has become a claiming for earlier adults. Earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities promotes concrete and brainy well-being, improves their health, and helps access their accomplishment in action and their assurance (Lee & Hong, 2012; Lee, 2008). It additionally affects their following of a pleasant, independent, and assured action (Lee, 2008). Earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities is accompanying to their affection of action (Kim & Lee, 2010; Lee & Hong, 2012). Lack of accord in leisure or amusing activities causes them to become isolated, thereby consistent in assorted cerebral problems, such as boredom, depression, or bareness (Kim & Kim, 2011; Lee & Hong, 2012).

A abstract assay of studies conducted in South Korea and away has apparent that leisure activities, or earlier adults’ amusing activities, are activated with perceived bloom status, cerebral well-being, levels of depression, levels of loneliness, and acknowledged crumbling (Ihle et al., 2017; Kim & Lee, 2010; Kim, 2009; Lee & Hong, 2012; Song & Um, 2008). Few studies accept been conducted on these variables, as able-bodied as on macho and changeable earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities. Therefore, studies on earlier adults’ accord akin in leisure activities are necessary, as able-bodied as comparisons of the furnishings of leisure activities by gender. The accepted abstraction aimed to appraise and assay the aftereffect of macho and changeable earlier adults’ accord akin in leisure activities on their perceived bloom status, cerebral well-being, levels of depression, levels of loneliness, and acknowledged aging.

A cross-sectional anecdotic abstraction architecture was used. The sample comprised 197 adults (women: n = 108, men: n = 89) ages 65 and earlier who were alive in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Participants were recruited through accessibility sampling. Inclusion belief were individuals who were 65 or older, accepted the purpose of the study, consented to participate in the study, had no cerebral crime (as authentic by array ≥24 credibility on the Korean adaptation of the Mini-Mental Accompaniment Examination), and had complete adeptness to verbally acquaint in Korean.

Sample admeasurement capability (n = 64 in both macho and changeable groups) application t assay G*power 3.1 assay software was estimated based on alpha = 0.05, boilerplate aftereffect admeasurement = 0.5, and ability = 0.8 (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007). Therefore, the sample admeasurement in the accepted abstraction was adequate.

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The abstracts accumulating aeon for the accepted abstraction was from May to November 2015. To recruit abstraction participants, a researcher (M.K.G.) contacted -to-be earlier developed participants alive in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea by action aperture to aperture and answer the purpose and cold of the assay as able-bodied as accord capacity and instruments that were to be acclimated in the study. Participants were called afterwards accepting accounting accord from volunteers. The check was accustomed abandoned to earlier adults who agreed to participate in the study, afterwards which the completed questionnaires were collected. The questionnaires were self-reported and administered by the researcher. Each actor took about 25 to 30 account to complete the survey.

The check was advised to admeasurement accepted characteristics of abstraction participants, leisure action participation, perceived bloom status, cerebral well-being, levels of depression, levels of loneliness, and acknowledged aging. Accepted characteristics included participants’ gender, age, educational level, conjugal status, religion, application status, bread-and-er status, ancestors associates they lived with, and account income. The check comprised 9 items.

The leisure action accord calibration was advised by Havighurst (1973). Havighurst (1973) proposes a assorted ambit of activities to advance adequate domiciliary environments, such as ancestors life, religious affiliations, amusing and political agendas, amusing clubs, friendships, hobbies, and entertainment. These activities were revised by Cho (2005) to accomplish them acceptable to Korean individuals, with activities such as growing domiciliary plants, gardening, growing orchids, and adopting fish. The activities included in ancestors action were additionally afflicted to accomplish them easier to accept based on sentiments of Korean individuals, such as accepting conversations with ancestors members, action to ancestors outings, or dining out. In addition, activities that accord to Korean earlier adults’ hobbies or forms of ball were revised to calligraphy and cartoon the Four Gracious Plants. The calibration by Cho (2005) was acclimated to admeasurement the accord akin of abstraction participants in leisure activities. It comprises a absolute of 20 questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 20 to 100, with college array advertence college levels of accord in leisure activities. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88.

Speake, Cowart, and Pellet’s (1989) perceived bloom cachet calibration was redeveloped by Cho (2010). Speake et al. (1989) argued that administration of nutrition, exercise, stress, self-realization, cerebral health, and amusing relationships was a key agency in bloom of earlier adults, as advantageous behavior amid earlier adults could adjournment concrete decline and advance bloom in general. Cho (2010) redeveloped these cerebral bloom items based on the abstraction by Speake et al. (1989). The calibration by Cho (2010) was acclimated to admeasurement the perceived bloom cachet of abstraction participants. It comprised three questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 3 to 15, with college array advertence greater perceived bloom status. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92.

The cerebral abundance calibration created by Ryff (1989) was acclimatized by Cho (2005). Cho (2005) translated the calibration into Korean and acclimatized it to clothing Korean individuals. The calibration by Cho (2005) was acclimated to admeasurement the akin of cerebral abundance of abstraction participants. It comprised a absolute of 18 questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 18 to 90, with college array advertence greater cerebral well-being. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86.

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The abasement calibration advised by Yesavage et al. (1983) was recreated as the Aged Abasement Calibration Short Form–Korean by Kee (1996). This calibration was acclimated to admeasurement the akin of abasement of abstraction participants. It comprised a absolute of 15 questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 15 to 75, with college array advertence college levels of depression. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86.

The UCLA Bareness Calibration created by Russell, Peplau, and Cutrona (1980) based on a 4-point Likert calibration was acclimatized by Nam (2012). Nam (2012) translated the calibration into Korean and acclimatized it to clothing Korean individuals. The calibration by Nam (2012) was acclimated to admeasurement levels of bareness of abstraction participants. It comprised 26 questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 26 to 130, with college array advertence college levels of loneliness. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93.

The acknowledged crumbling scale, created by Rowe and Kahn (1997), was revised by Park (2011). The belief of acknowledged aging, as created by Rowe and Kahn (1997), comprise three parts: blockage competent admitting illness, advancement concrete functions, and proactively accommodating in amusing activities. Park (2011) revised the three genitalia to seven sub-factors: assured action (independence and albatross for one’s own life); aiming against self-realization (continuous activities and acquirements and acumen affairs for self-realization); proactive accord in action (active amusing participation, such as leisure and amusing activities); accomplishment with accouchement (good accord with accouchement and action appreciative of them); self-acceptance (acceptance of one’s amount and one’s situation); accepting of others (acceptance of others’ situations and non-intervention); and accompaniment (happy affiliated life, alternate understanding, and administration of chores). The calibration by Park (2011) was acclimated to admeasurement the akin of acknowledged crumbling of abstraction participants. It comprised a absolute of 25 questions application a 5-point Likert scale. The accessible account ambit was 25 to 125, with college array advertence added acknowledged aging. The believability of this apparatus was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.91.

Data were analyzed application SPSS adaptation 21.0. Anecdotic statistics, chi-square test, absolute t test, and Fisher’s exact assay were acclimated to assay demographic characteristics of abstraction participants. Correlations amid abstraction variables amid genders were analyzed application Pearson’s alternation coefficient. To appraise the aftereffect of macho and changeable earlier adults’ accord akin in leisure activities on abstraction variables, advisers disconnected participants into groups with college and lower levels of accord in leisure activities according to boilerplate value, allegory them accordingly. To assay amid genders, the absolute t assay and assay of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. Akin of statistical acceptation was set at 0.05.

The abstraction was accustomed by the Institutional Assay Board of the corresponding university in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were a that they could voluntarily booty allotment in the abstraction and that they could additionally abjure from accommodating at any time if they wished. Moreover, they were a about the anonymity and acquaintance of the abstracts they would provide. Advisers acquired completed accounting accord forms from acceptable participants above-mentioned to their participation.

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Average age of abstraction participants was 76.95 (men: 76.37 years, women: 77.56 years). For macho earlier adults, the allotment of those who accustomed elementary apprenticeship (47.2%) and those who accustomed average or aerial academy apprenticeship (44.9%) was similar, admitting for changeable earlier adults, the allotment of those who accustomed elementary apprenticeship or beneath (64.8%) was higher. In addition, the allotment of earlier adults with a religious amalgamation was college in women (53.7%) than in men (37.1%). The allotment of changeable earlier adults (87%) after a job was college than that of macho earlier adults (73%). However, there was no statistically cogent aberration amid macho and changeable earlier adults in agreement of age, conjugal status, bread-and-er status, ancestors associates they lived with, and account assets (Table 1).

Table 1:

General Characteristics of Abstraction Participants (N = 197)

In macho earlier adults, the akin of accord in leisure activities was absolutely accompanying to perceived bloom cachet (r = 0.24, p < 0.05), and abnormally accompanying to abasement (r = −0.24, p < 0.05). Thus, the college the akin of accord in leisure activities of macho earlier adults, the bigger their perceived bloom cachet and lower their abasement level. In changeable earlier adults, akin of accord in leisure activities was absolutely accompanying to cerebral abundance (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) and acknowledged crumbling (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). In added words, the college the akin of accord in leisure activities in changeable earlier adults, the bigger their cerebral abundance and added acknowledged their crumbling (Table 2).

Table 2:

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Correlations amid Abstraction Variables amid Genders (N = 197)

In macho earlier adults, perceived bloom status, acknowledged aging, cerebral well-being, levels of depression, and levels of bareness did not appearance a cogent aberration aural the acceptation akin p < 0.05 based on akin of accord in leisure activities. However, aural the acceptation akin p < 0.08, there was a cogent aberration in perceived bloom cachet (t = −1.92, p = 0.058) and levels of bareness (t = 1.83, p = 0.071). In changeable earlier adults, akin of accord in leisure activities fabricated a cogent aberration in their cerebral abundance (t = 2.28, p = 0.025) and acknowledged crumbling (t = 2.56, p = 0.012) (Table 3).

Table 3:

Influence of Leisure Action Accord amid Genders amid Korean Earlier Adults (N=197)

Analysis of correlations amid accord in leisure activities and accompanying factors showed that in macho earlier adults, the akin of accord in leisure activities activated with bigger perceived bloom cachet and lower levels of depression, admitting in changeable earlier adults, it activated with bigger cerebral abundance and added acknowledged aging. These after-effects approved that there was a aberration amid macho and changeable earlier adults in correlations amid accord in leisure activities and assay variables. Furthermore, such after-effects abutment those of antecedent studies that adumbrated earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities had a absolute alternation with perceived bloom status, cerebral well-being, action satisfaction, and acknowledged crumbling (Cha, 2010; Chung & Song, 2011; Kim & Kim, 2011; Kim, 2009; Paggi, Jopp, & Hertzog, 2016), and a abrogating alternation with abasement and bareness (Fastame, Hitchcott, & Penna, 2018; Kim & Kim, 2011; Song & Um, 2008).

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Analysis after-effects apropos the aberration in assay variables amid macho and changeable earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities showed that aural the acceptation akin p < 0.08, macho earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities resulted in a cogent aberration in perceived bloom cachet and loneliness. Changeable earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities resulted in a cogent aberration in cerebral abundance and acknowledged aging, advertence that changeable earlier adults with college levels of accord in leisure activities had bigger cerebral abundance and added acknowledged aging. These after-effects abutment those of antecedent studies, which appear that earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities had a absolute aftereffect on perceived bloom status, thereby auspicious action accomplishment and acknowledged crumbling (Ihle et al., 2017; Kim & Lee, 2010). Moreover, earlier adults’ proactive accord in leisure activities helped ensure action accomplishment and cerebral abundance (Pack, Kim, & Kim, 2010), as able-bodied as lower levels of bareness and depression. In addition, it helped them advance their self-esteem, identity, and accomplishment with action (Song & Um, 2008). In particular, the accepted after-effects approved that accord in leisure activities had a added absolute aftereffect on cerebral abundance and acknowledged crumbling amid female, rather than male, earlier adults. In application of the ascent cardinal of changeable earlier adults who alive abandoned (Lee, Kim, & Sok, 2016; Sok, 2016), the accepted abstraction after-effects betoken that added accord in leisure activities amid changeable earlier adults who alive abandoned would advice advance to cerebral abundance and acknowledged aging.

Recent structural changes in the action bazaar and association accept admiring absorption in the use of earlier developed labor, and chief medical and amusing abundance casework (Ihle et al., 2017; Kim, 2009; Song & Um, 2008). Accordingly, earlier adults’ use of their leisure time, which has become best than that of added age groups, is important. Earlier adults’ charge for leisure activities is not abandoned about resting, but additionally about convalescent antithesis in their lives (Havighurst, 1973), as leisure activities action new experiences, challenges, and pleasure. Earlier adults’ leisure activities are absolute factors in allowance them adore their backward action successfully, because they action an befalling to acquisition self-balance and self-fulfillment (Ihle et al., 2017; Kim & Lee, 2010), as able-bodied as animate earlier adults to reinvent themselves, access claimed achievements, and relax, appropriately laying the foundation for a wholesome and advantageous action (Lin, Jeng, & Yeh, 2018; Pack et al., 2010).

The accepted abstraction has limitations in the sample’s amount of representation and generalizability. Participants were recruited abandoned from Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, which bound the characteristics of the data. However, the capital aim of this abstraction was not to accomplish generalizable results, but rather to accommodate advice on which to body approaching research.

The accepted abstraction bent that earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities served as an attack to antithesis their antithesis of action and rest, and answer assorted absolute furnishings (e.g., self-fulfillment, refreshment, claimed achievement, ability in life, access in morale, action satisfaction). Therefore, it is all-important to advance added assorted and able leisure programs that can advance earlier adults’ perceived bloom status, cerebral well-being, and acknowledged aging, as able-bodied as abate levels of abasement and loneliness. Furthermore, the variables on which accord in leisure activities accept a cogent aftereffect alter by gender. Thus, it is important to apparatus altered leisure programs according to gender. After-effects of the accepted abstraction can be acclimated to authorize leisure programs for macho and changeable earlier adults.

Nursing strategies and interventions for accretion leisure activities in earlier adults are needed. For example, governments or communities can atone earlier adults who participate in leisure activities. Alive accessible acquaintance of leisure activities for earlier adults is additionally needed. Furthermore, it is all-important to conduct qualitative assay that aims to accept and assay the acceptation of leisure activities from the perspectives of macho and changeable earlier adults.

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Level of accord in leisure activities was absolutely activated with perceived bloom cachet and abnormally activated with abasement in macho earlier adults. Meanwhile, it had a absolute alternation with cerebral abundance and acknowledged crumbling in changeable earlier adults. Macho earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities had a statistically significant, admitting small, aftereffect on their perceived bloom cachet and loneliness, admitting changeable earlier adults’ accord in leisure activities had a cogent aftereffect on their cerebral abundance and acknowledged aging. The advisers achievement that these after-effects will advice animate earlier adults to participate added actively and absolutely in leisure activities so that they can alive a physically, mentally, and psychologically convalescent life.

General Characteristics of Abstraction Participants (N = 197)

Correlations amid Abstraction Variables amid Genders (N = 197)

Influence of Leisure Action Accord amid Genders amid Korean Earlier Adults (N=197)

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