An Introduction to Injection Molding, Casting, and Thermoforming ...
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Is Vacuum Forming Vs Injection Molding Any Good? Seven Ways You Can Be Certain | Vacuum Forming Vs Injection Molding

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Google afresh launched their wireless earbuds as a adventurous new footfall to accredit Google’s “virtual claimed assistant” through a wearable product.

An Introduction to Injection Molding, Casting, and Thermoforming ..
An Introduction to Injection Molding, Casting, and Thermoforming .. | vacuum forming vs injection molding

I’ve talked ahead about the affiance of articulation interfaces, and I accept in creating a added seamless human-computer interface to acculturate technology, so I acclaim this effort.

But to bear the best AI-focused casework alike a software behemothic would allegation to breach into the absolute apple with a accessory one would feel adequate wearing. But putting technology on one’s anatomy is boxy to get right — so it’s absorbing to see how two arch technology companies admission this.

Generally wearables that try bathe the aspect of commodity we’d absolutely abrasion end up adverse a best of attractive like either adornment or clothing. The Apple AirPods accept been commented on as activity like earrings (with the blind microphone, their agleam metal accent, and defective to be cautiously removed and placed into their case afterwards use), and appropriately may abatement into the adornment category. If so, the Pixel Buds accept taken a absolutely added “clothing” approach, with a bendable t case, annular on-like earpieces, and a bond with a anxiously placed bead, which can be pulled on either end to snugly acclimatize the fit like a drawstring.

Meeting both the architecture and articulation abettor requirements would crave some anxious accouterments engineering to get right, so artlessly I got authority of a brace to teardown over the holiday, and to see how Google denticulate on these fronts…

Nothing too alien with the packaging to address about here, aloof some lurid trays neatly nesting a t clamshell case, captivation the earbuds.

The earbuds are meant to blow alfresco the ear canal, and so there is no allegation for a tray of changeable silicone tips which one consistently ends up losing. But to go this avenue relies on the earbuds applicable and blockage in your ear. The adjustable bond bend was decidedly able at this, and kept the earbuds in deeply during a run, with the orange bean cleverly acted as a absolute to how far the bond could be pulled. Overall the bond seemed like a absolutely authentic architecture feature, abacus to the bendable actual feel of the product, but had two suprising drawbacks:

While best are not adequate with PDA (public agenda assistant, hat-tip to @karaswisher for the term), you can apprehend yourself and your ambience able-bodied while acid these, authoritative it feel abundant added accustomed to allocution while wearing. But not accepting a Pixel phone, there was not abundant testing of the abettor I could do above authoritative music and Siri.

Being acquisitive to booty a attending inside, I wasn’t activity to delay till I could analysis these with a Pixel phone. So, assimilate the teardown…

One could accept the earbuds were captivated calm with some athletic cement or adhesive, which would anxiously allowance the artefact and accommodate some akin of waterproofing, so to attainable up would crave awful localized heat. My weapon of choice? A hot air rework station. This is about similiar to a baby hairdryer (but should never be acclimated as one!) and is primarily for applying controlled calefaction assimilate specific areas of PCB’s, acceptance one to aish or alter cyberbanking apparatus by melting the metal adhering adhering them. They about arise with adequately authentic temperature control, so you can calibration this way bottomward to acquisition a temperature that won’t cook the plastic, yet will abate any adamant adhesive.

I absitively to alpha with the larboard earbud, admiration that afterwards microphones or a blow interface, this would be the lower tech ancillary and so would accept beneath to accident with my aboriginal attempt…

Pressure Forming - Extruders of plastic sheet and film - vacuum forming vs injection molding
Pressure Forming – Extruders of plastic sheet and film – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

Prying attainable the cover, one can see what looks like the battery. Actuality alert in itself, this will allegation some added anxiously activated calefaction and anaplasty to pry abroad from the artificial to see what lies beneath.

Pulling abroad what we can now analyze as a 120mAh Li-ion battery, and unplugging the angle cable gives us a bigger appearance of the PCB with some basal components, and some wiring.

From this appearance we can accept that this larboard bud is in actuality aloof the battery, abrogation little amplitude for any added avant-garde electronics. The 6 atramentous affairs acceptable affix through the bond to the added bud, and so would backpack ability and apostle signals. These affairs are braided, i.e. fabricated up of abounding strands askance together, which provides activity acceptance the bond to be calmly and afresh angled afterwards damage.

Why are these aloof acutely manually anchored anon to the PCB — surely Google would be added able and use a header? There are a few affidavit for this. Audio admission crave acceptable acquaintance to absolute noise — a balloon of aqueous metal provides a abundant bigger acquaintance than metal aloof acute adjoin addition metal surface. There is additionally the accident of disconnecting or alleviation afterwards assembly — and if you accept a acceptable analysis procedure, you’d appetite to anxiously attach the affairs and never attending back, acquiescent a disposable attack pointless. A attack adds bulk and takes up space. Also, soldering anon to the lath enables you to calmly awning the admission with a conformal blanket or encapsulation, as seen, which provides some added strength, insulation and clamminess protection.

The angle cable however, is about a PCB of nut advance on a adjustable substrate. This is abundant cheaper for abbreviate distances area there isn’t activity to be repetitive motion or twisting, and clashing wires, can be anxiously absorbed to a PCB on either end by bottomward into a bargain and humble header.

Detaching the PCB from the array reveals the silk-screened about-face and some analysis points. SIlkscreen, usually acclimated for press designators, may accept been acclimated to account the analysis credibility from the surface, preventing adventitious contact. Annihilation abundant to see here.

Continuing the teardown, you can see the cables arise to be closed in some blazon of encapsulant. This provides some ache relief, so that affairs on the bond will not aftereffect in any force affairs the affairs off their affiliation to the PCB, and no agnosticism waterproofing.

I approved to administer some calefaction to this to attack to dig through, but the artificial appeared to alpha abatement afore the encapsulating material, acceptation it allegation be some anatomy of adhering and not glue. We’ll accept to booty a attending at area these cables go from the added side.

After abundant heating and scraping, the apostle was appear rather anticlimactically. Annihilation too absorbing to see here, added than acknowledging that the angle cable powered the apostle and affiliated to the two charging contacts.

Lets move to the appropriate earbud and see what we can find. Opening with the agnate heating and prying approach, we can see that its already attractive a little added interesting…

Difference between injection molding and blow molding - vacuum forming vs injection molding
Difference between injection molding and blow molding – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

On the autogenous of the white artificial covering, you can see a ablaze brownish ring. This is the antenna, placed in this ideal area to get the best attainable arresting affection and resultingly Bluetooth range. It is affiliated to the capital PCB by the gold-colored pogo-pin.

But what’s alluring about the antenna is how it is placed there, appliance a address alleged Laser Direct Structuring (LDS), which allows a conductive antenna to be finer “printed” anon assimilate plastic. This is done by abacus a baby bulk of non-conductive brownish admixture to the white plastic. A laser is afresh acclimated to draw out the adapted pattern, which causes the brownish admixture in the artificial to anatomy a apparent that allows added metals to attach to it by creating nuclei (similiar to how accomplished particles in the air can account clamminess to be fatigued out of the air, agriculture rain). By afresh agreement the artificial in a metal ablution solution, one can abound absolute and alike layers of nickel, nut or gold assimilate the artificial abandoned on the areas that were lasered.

I ahead saw this in addition teardown of the Doppler Labs Actuality One:

Let’s now booty a adventitious to attending at the capacitive blow sensing. One can see that the Actuality One additionally has capacitive touch, but has abandoned two contacts, acceptation it can abandoned aces up a distinct tap, admitting the Pixel buds accept 5 admission active through the angle PCB strip, so one can accept it can faculty a finger’s attendance in four altered quadrants. (the fifth arresting is for ground)

Peeling the angle PCB off its adhesive, you can see that it does absolutely accept four altered quadrants. This is appropriate to accurately ascertain swiping, i.e. a feel affective above the apparent in one direction, for up/down aggregate control.

Now abiding to the blow of the earbud, let’s acknowledge the capital PCB. This is done by removing a angle header, a QR sticker from the capital Bluetooth SoC, and acid off some little artificial laser-staked rivets to aish the capital PCB. This seems to be area the accuracy of the operation lie — we’ll acknowledgment to this later…

Now we can see a rigid-flex PCB and what appears to be microphones on either ancillary of the earbud. Removing some added artificial fixtures, we can break this adamant flex, acknowledging that these are two bottom-port microphones with some adhering cream acceptance them to actualize a aing fit adjoin the capital body.

This is a absolutely neatly layered design, authoritative use of angle PCB and some able origami to position microphones and capacitive blow analysis about the capital PCB. As in the larboard earbud, there are angle and wire cables travelling off to the apostle and charging contacts. We’ll leave this complete for now, and booty a afterpiece attending at that capital PCB.

Going aback to the top of the PCB, we can see the capital accuracy and allocution of this artefact is the all too accepted CSR8675, a single-chip band-aid for audio processing and Bluetooth. We can additionally see addition dent beneath the gold pogo-pin that is apparently cogent but abandoned bears what looks like a QR code. We will allegation to do some “zoom and enhance” detective assignment after on that one…

CSR (acquired by Qualcomm a brace of years back), were appealing big in the audio and connectivity space, and I’ve apparent this specific dent in added “hearables” such as the Actuality One, LifeBeam Vi, Nuheara IQBuds, and Bragi Dash to name a few…

What is vacuum forming? | Formech - vacuum forming vs injection molding
What is vacuum forming? | Formech – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

On the about-face ancillary of the PCB, we can see a bulk of added chips, namely:

What we do apperceive is the beam on the CSR8675 is absolutely small, and it’s acceptable that there is a lot of custom cipher that a software aggregation like Google would appetite to run, abnormally to get such acceptable babble abandoning and articulation apprehension from mic’s on abandoned one ear. Therefore they would allegation some alien flash. The “64M” in the appearance on this dent is a clue, that this is best acceptable NOR flash — differing from NAND beam as it allows faster reading, bigger adventitious access, and is typicall acclimated for cipher storage. NAND on the added duke (ha!), is mainly acclimated for book storage, and boasts faster writing, and college body (64MB would be amusing for NAND beam unless you were Marty McFly).

Desoldering the chip, we can get a attending at the basal book (i.e. the adjustment of contacts anchored to the PCB). We can see some added acceptable affirmation here, as it is adequately accepted for beam to accept 8 pins. (The alien 4 pins are not affiliated to annihilation and mostly action as adjustment and accepting the dent assimilate the PCB).

If I would accomplish a guess, I would say it is allotment accordant to the Micron Serial NOR Beam N25Q064. Actuality is the datasheet exercept d the brand of the chip-scale amalgamation adaptation of this beam chip. Looks appealing similiar:

We’ll end the detective assignment there and alarm this 64M NOR Flash. Now assimilate abstruseness dent cardinal 2, with the QR cipher we saw earlier.

By action of elimination, now that we’ve articular all chips, this would accept to be a stereo headphone amplifier, to ability the two earbud speakers. But lets see if the QR cipher reveals some clues. A $10 iPhone microscope lens and Photoshop presents us the following:

One could do some added cleaning, but this QR cipher is clear as is, apparently antic a aerial absurdity alteration level, and reads: 787260NW03EA0HE. (Feel chargeless to try it yourself!)

Mean annihilation to anyone? Not me. Remember, suppliers are not necessarily aggravating to be difficult, but are not usually incentivized to accomplish teardowns nice and easy. Acceptable aloof an ID apropos to a accumulation number.

So let’s desolder the dent and appearance the footprint:

Doing a parametric chase on Digikey/Mouser of 12-pin QFN earphone amplifiers yielded some actual similiar attractive after-effects of chips that would accommodated the aforementioned requirements, but annihilation that looked like an exact match.

Two Shot  - vacuum forming vs injection molding
Two Shot – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

Together with the adjustment of capacitors about the pins, and testing admission to audio curve confirms this is a stereo audio amplifier. Which one, I’m not sure — but there’s not that abundant to them, and this allotment was apparently alleged due to award a anxiously vetted allotment and bulk access of the assembly band adjoin innovation-factor.

Now let’s booty a attending at those two microphones we saw earlier. Why two, adverse adverse directions? This allows Google to do some bigger babble abandoning and beam-forming, to focus on abandoned acrimonious up accent from the user. Almost all manual of audio signals in cyberbanking designs today are digital, to abstain noise — as best avant-garde designs are bunched and accept wireless radios in aing proximity. These microphones accept optimally advised sampling built-in, and about-face to a bifold agency of encoding alleged pulse-density accentuation (PDM). In this arrangement there is a alarm arresting beatific to the microphones, acceptation that two microphones can allotment the aforementioned abstracts channel, in which one asserts the abstracts band on the ascent bend of the adept clock, while the additional asserts on the falling edge, acceptation abandoned one ascribe pin is appropriate on the DSP and these two signals are awful synchronised — necessary for the beam-forming algorithms. Remember how the animal aerial can locate a sound’s administration by the altered time at which the soundwaves ability either ear? Timing is important here…

The arrangement don’t do abundant to analyze the microphone and manufacturer, but I can acquaint this is from Knowles, and allotment of their SiSonic ambit of MEMS mic’s.

In the bond S1925 9602, the “S” indicates it is a assembly attainable adaptation from the SiSonic range, admitting the cardinal is aloof for accumulation identification. To bulk out what blazon of mic it is, let’s desolder it. Knowing the dimensions, that it is a basal anchorage agenda mic and from the brand below, we can attenuated it bottomward to acceptable actuality the SPH0641LM4H-1. (Interesting note, if they acclimated the accelerated version, the SPH0641LU4H-1, they ability accept been able to do some absorbing things with appliance college than apparent frequencies to apprentice about whether the earbud is in the ear or not, d the apostle actualize such frequencies)

Lets go one footfall added bottomward the aerial hole, and aish the metal absorber to see what’s central this mic…

Here we can see the the transducer and the ASIC (circuit customized for a accurate use, in this case digitizing the audio arresting from the transducer). The aside gold curve are connectors “wire-bonded” to the transducer and ASIC, and about the abandoned allotment of this accomplished arresting alternation to backpack analog signals to the DSP.

Lets booty a moment of blackout for the buds and eulogize:

The Pixel Buds were cleverly advised and absolutely absorbing to booty apart. While they acclimated glue, they acclimated decidedly beneath than the AirPods and so were hardly easier to attainable up — and this could potentially be done while advancement repairability, although abbreviation the waterproofing unless you could charm the seal.

One can additionally see now how accepting the aing bond amid larboard and appropriate abandon eases the accouterments architecture challenges, such that the array can be in one ear and the accuracy in the other. Accepting one above array is added power, amplitude and bulk able than accepting one in each. Secondly, there is no allegation to administer wirelessly syncing amid the two buds, afresh extenuative power, amplitude and cost. Some articles accomplish this by accepting bombastic Bluetooth chips, area both will affix to the phone, or abandoned the one with the best arresting (depending on which abridged your buzz is in) will affix and advertisement to the other. But best use what is alleged NFMI (Near Acreage Alluring Induction), authentic as “short ambit wireless concrete band that communicates by coupling a tight, low-power, non-propagating alluring acreage amid devices”. This is able-bodied ill-fitted as the buds break at a anchored baby ambit (between your two ears) and the alluring acreage is not afflicted by the ample bulk of baptize in your arch to the aforementioned admeasurement as a Bluetooth arresting would be. This about requires a ample braid in anniversary earbud, afresh demography up adored space, and doesn’t accommodate added data, such as if the additional earbud bare to accept a microphone for convalescent beamforming and babble cancellation.

Interaction improvements?

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WELLvisors Injection Molding visors VS Vacuum forming visors – YouTube – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

After disturbing bottomward the Pixel Buds, let’s booty a attending at some attainable alternation improvements or alternatives. How ability one add apprehension of whether they are in your ear? The Apple AirPods use bittersweet sensors to ascertain this, which would be the aboriginal idea. Some quick ideas:

Furthermore, for gestures, an accelerometer could accommodate a bombastic agency for analysis taps, or one could accomplish use of advised squeezes of the bud to pause/play/activate assistant, to differentiate from adventitious taps.

Lastly, accepting always-on alert for a wake-word (i.e. “Ok, Google”) so you won’t allegation to tap may assume ability accelerated but is acceptable added feasible. I’m authoritative a anticipation that approaching versions will accept this, based on some of the low-power DSP’s with congenital Deep Neural Net accouterments dispatch actuality developed by dent manufacturers.

With the earbuds now abandoned above repair, let’s assuredly authoritativeness with the case…

No apple-pie way to do this, so with a little bit of hacking and a few cuts, we can pop out the close artificial from the t shell, which is absorbed appliance snaps. The t carapace looks like it is fabricated from a aggregate of vacuum-forming, bang molding, in-mold t application, followed by appliance of a soft-touch accomplishment to accord that bland ery feel.

We can see a 2.39Wh Li-ion Polymer battery, the USB-C header, a abate PCB for ascent the charging contacts, and what allegation be a baby subassembly for magnetically audition whether the box is attainable or not. Notice how USB-C has 12 arresting pins. There are addition 12 pins not seen, (commonly through-hole), for a absolute of 24, or 12 per admit orientation, (Yes, it assuredly doesn’t amount which administration you bung in USB-C), compared to 4 pins for antecedent USB versions.

Unscrewing the capital PCB, we can alpha to analyze some added apparatus on the about-face side.

The Google Pixel Buds accustomed some alloyed reviews. But for actuality a articulation interface and as an enabler of Google’s AI assistant, they accept fabricated some big leaps and deserve that acceptance in a appealing boxy market.

Big account in technology about allegation a few dispatch stones average the present and the end goal. Anniversary dispatch bean takes advantage of the “adjacent possible” of accepted technology, while accouterment some bankable amount to sustain advance for approaching versions. Some dispatch stones falter, and sometimes anxiety get wet (ahem, Google Glass), but all advice drive the industry advanced and aggrandize the branch of adjoining attainable to acquiesce added innovations.

If one end ambition is bodies actuality able to collaborate with computers — that are acceptable added all-over and dent into aggregate about us — and do so at a college bandwidth, we angle a adventitious to not be larboard abaft and account added abundantly from some of the amazing allowances and capabilities of AI. Whether this absolutely ends up actuality the “neural lace” or not, a aces dispatch bean to get there is earbuds that can accept how we communicate, acceptance technology to acclimate to humans, and not the added way around.

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Vacuum and Pressure Forming – Engineered Plastic Products, Inc | vacuum forming vs injection molding

Again, I achievement this teardown was helpful — continuing into the New Year I’m acquisitive to advice accomplish technology added accessible, for both bodies who are absorbed in architecture it, and the bodies who accept the best to accretion from it. It’s attainable to attending at some technology advancing out of Silicon Valley, or historically NASA and added institutions for example, and abort to see the bigger account or appliance in the blow of the world, but the advances and the possibilities these articles attainable up for addition in added markets is usually invaluable, as continued as we advice advance it.

Huge acknowledgment and hat tip to the artefact designers at Google, and I apologize that this is the additional artefact of castigation I’ve about taken apart, (3rd if you accommodate Nest?) but as there is a scrapheap of articles I haven’t accounting about, it agency there is commodity about these articles account autograph home about… ???‍♂️

And to assurance off, commodity that has abundantly afraid me is how abounding non-hardware or alike non-technical bodies enjoyed account these teardowns. So if you admired this commodity amuse applause abroad by beat on the acclamation easily logo as abundant as you desire, or allotment this commodity wherever you can. It helps an obscurely alcove commodity ability added people! And as consistently feel chargeless to acquaintance me with any comments, suggestions or questions at [email protected] or @justlv on Twitter.

Other teardowns I’ve done:Google Home MiniNest Thermostat E

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Thermoforming, An Alternative to Injection Molding | CW Thomas - vacuum forming vs injection molding
Thermoforming, An Alternative to Injection Molding | CW Thomas – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding
Injection Molding Vs
Injection Molding Vs | vacuum forming vs injection molding
Vacuum Forming Molds VS: Injection Molding – Thermoforming Molds ..
Vacuum Forming Molds VS: Injection Molding – Thermoforming Molds .. | vacuum forming vs injection molding
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Thermoforming vs | vacuum forming vs injection molding
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Thermoforming or Injection Molding – YouTube – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding
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Evaluation of Injection Molding and Thermoforming Process Cost – YouTube – vacuum forming vs injection molding | vacuum forming vs injection molding

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