A Note from Gene: About two weeks ago, on Tuesday, April 8, 2014, I had a absolute appropriate hip replacement. The anaplasty went actual well. The bigger botheration I encountered was about ceaseless hiccups for the aboriginal week, which was acceptable due to the anesthesia. I was walking the aing day, and I am now walking with alone the abetment of a cane. Rehab is activity nicely. With this activity on in my claimed activity I anticipation it would be absorbing to booty a attending at the change of hip backup technology through the lens of issued U.S. patents.
Hip surgeries accept been demography abode for at atomic three hundreds years, and accept progressed from abecedarian surgeries to the adult absolute hip backup (i.e., absolute hip arthroplasty or THA) surgeries that are so commonplace today. According to the CDC, during 2010 there were 332,000 in accommodating absolute hip replacements performed in the U.S. Indeed, hip backup anaplasty today is broadly accustomed as one of the best acknowledged surgical interventions anytime developed. See Aboriginal Attempts at Hip Arthroplasty.
Modern canicule of hip backup anaplasty absolutely date aback to the 1960s, with the development of new accessories that bargain the abrasion abiding by bogus hip joints over time, and which provided added anticipated outcomes. Still, as with all abundant accurate advancement, it is absurd to discount the important discoveries of the aboriginal days. Afterwards aboriginal accomplish in any accurate endeavor approaching accomplish are impossible.
With this in mind, today we commence on the aboriginal of our Change of Technology series, demography a attending at the addition history of hip backup anaplasty and technologies, from the aboriginal femoral arch accessories ancient from ivory to accepted technologies which may accredit surgeons to conserve added accustomed cartilage than anytime afore through the use of constructed cartilage.
A Abbreviate History of Hip Replacements
By the backward 1700s, surgical procedures involving the high femur and hip had progressed due to discoveries beforehand in the aeon apropos the analysis of ashen tissues. Collective abatement anaplasty had become a above breadth of abstraction at this time as an addition agency of alleviative above injuries abiding by bartering sailors and blood-soaked soldiers. This accustomed doctors to amusement patients afterwards resorting to aitionist life-saving techniques, such as amputation.
Many of the aboriginal hip collective innovations can be traced to the Westminster Hospital in London, area in 1821 the aboriginal appear abatement arthroplasty was performed by Anthony White. Afterwards White’s abatement arthoplasty assorted advances occurred in hospitals in France, Germany and Philadelphia. It wasn’t until the backward nineteenth century, however, that the aboriginal recorded hip backup occurred in axial Europe. In 1891, Themistocles Gluck invented an implantable hip replacement, a articulation collective ancient of ivory and added with nickel-plated screws. Thus, hip backup anaplasty has been performed in one address or addition for 123 years.
Hip arthroplasty, the surgical adjustment or backup of the musculoskeletal collective at the hip, progressed through the aboriginal 1900s, although treatments would generally aftermath broadly assorted results. Beforehand procedures would alone acquiesce motion for a few years afore a accommodating would become acutely handicapped, but by the 1920s, abiding advancement afterwards hip arthroplasty could be accomplished with fair consistency.
In the aboriginal bisected of the twentieth century, prosthetic hip joints grew in acceptance amid surgeons, and abounding new implantable joints were developed aural a few decades. Along with ivory, added designs activated rubber, acrylic and Vitallium, a brownish admixture trademarked in the 1930s by Austenal Laboratories of New York, NY. One of the ancient patents apropos hip arthroplasty was issued to Austenal Labs in August 1955. U.S. Apparent No. 2,716,406, blue-blooded Hip-Nail Disciplinarian for Angular Hip Nails, protects a disciplinarian for angular hip nails that allows for the bigger use of adviser rods aback ambience nails to amusement hip collective fractures.
Another aboriginal apparent on the accountable lists Edward J. Haboush as the sole inventor. Haboush, a above surgeon at New York City’s Hospital for Special Anaplasty in the 1950s, was addition innovator who contributed to the aboriginal development of avant-garde absolute hip arthroplasty. He was abundantly amenable for assertive developments in prosthetic architecture and additionally experimented with the use of dental acrylic adhesive for bogus collective construction. U.S. Apparent No. 2,668,531, blue-blooded Prosthesis for Hip Joint, was issued in February 1954 by the USPTO. This apparent adequate a brownish backup arch for a chipped or burst femur that could be anchored to the femur cartilage and complete the joint.
Increases to the architecture complication for hip replacements would access with time, as can be apparent in U.S. Apparent No. 3,656,184, which is blue-blooded Bogus Hip Joint. This patent, issued to abandoned artist Harold Victor Chambers of Brantford, Ontario, protects a two-part backup for a patient’s hip joint, accouterment both a ball-shaped arch to the femur cartilage and the atrium created by the pelvis’s acetabulum. This collective was advised to accommodate bigger assimilation of the femur’s ball-head aural the socket, preventing breach afterwards the use of a appliance ring.
Sir John Charnley and Absolute Hip Arthroplasty
Beginning in the aboriginal 1960s, abstracts and techniques for hip prostheses would abide some advocate advances, acknowledgment in ample allotment to the low abrasion arthroplasty procedures developed by Sir John Charnley, the orthopedic surgeon abundantly advised to be the ancestor of avant-garde absolute hip replacements. He set out to actualize a hip backup that created lower frictional armament afterwards analytical one hip backup accommodating whose prosthesis created an annoying cheep while walking.
Charnley developed a hip backup consisting of a metal femoral axis and a polyethylene basic for basement the collective in the acetabulum of the pelvis. The backup adjustment additionally acclimated acrylic cartilage adhesive that had been acclimated in dentistry. The bargain admeasurement of the femoral arch bargain the bulk of abrasion this accessory would abide over time, appropriately acclamation one of the above problems complex with hip arthroplasty.
Some of the beforehand patents apropos hip arthroplasty and prosthetic accessories were issued by the U.S. Apparent and Trademark Office by the backward 1970s, and Charnley is listed as an artist on some notable patents. In May 1977, he was issued U.S. Apparent No. 4,021,865, blue-blooded Femoral Prosthesis. This apparent adequate a prosthesis for the femur which provided bigger backbone afterwards years of service, abnormally aback the amount on the hip was above due to the patient’s frame. This atypical prosthetic architecture was developed to bigger abutment the high bisected of the prosthetic collective and abate accent on the acrylic cement, which could fracture.
John Charnley is additionally listed as the sole artist of U.S. Apparent No. 4,327,449, advantaged Acetabular Prosthesis. Issued by the USPTO in May 1982, this apparent protects a prosthetic accessory for the acetabulum of the pelvis. The adjustments to the antecedent and after aperture of the atrium affiliate on the prosthesis were advised to animate a ambit of movement above a 90 amount bend afterwards accidental to added accent and wear.
Current Developments in Hip Backup Technology
Even with the cogent abstruse advance of hip replacements throughout the twentieth century, there are still a cardinal of improvements actuality approved by medical professionals. In July 2012, a surgical aggregation at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, CA, completed the aboriginal absolute hip backup of a new action utilizing robotics for added absolute article of backup devices. The action was developed by MAKO Surgical Corporation of Fort Lauderdale, FL, a aggregation with 51 assigned patents according to our best contempo database search. An allegorical patent, U.S. Apparent No. 8,498,744, blue-blooded Surgical Automatic Systems With Chiral and Haptic and/or Active Ascendancy Modes, protects a surgical automatic arrangement for hip backup that provides a surgeon with bigger chiral ascendancy of the system. Along with hip replacement, this technology could be acclimated in arthroplasty procedures for added joints, including the knees or shoulders.
Other afresh patented technologies point out a growing trend in hip arthroplasty: minimally invasive surgery. These surgical techniques, which abbreviate accident to the bendable tissues surrounding the hip joint, advice abundantly abate the accretion time and associated hospital breach for patients, alike authoritative hip backup an out accommodating anaplasty in some situations if the almsman is a applicant for such an approach. For example, U.S. Apparent No. 8,657,824, blue-blooded Universal Double Offset Surgical Instrument, protects a abate accessory for advancing a femur’s medullary aqueduct for a prosthetic hip installation. This accessory is able of assuming minimally invasive surgical techniques while acute beneath account accumulator space. U.S. Apparent No. 8,679,005, advantaged After Tissue Retractor for Use in Hip Backup Surgery, protects a accessory for the after retraction of tissues surrounding the acetabulum which can accomplish added abiding advantage for surgical procedures. It should be acclaimed that abounding of these patents, abnormally this ‘005 patent, accept some abundantly connected claims that would about denote a attenuated patent. However, with so abounding hip backup surgeries performed annually in the United States, these technologies are absolutely admired alike if the apparent claims themselves are absolutely narrow.
American universities and colleges accept additionally been bastions of medical analysis in contempo decades in a cardinal of fields, as we’ve apparent in our contempo advantage of bookish systems like the University of California. Our chase today additionally angry up one apparent in accurate that is co-assigned to Stanford University of Palo Alto, CA, and the Department of Veteran Affairs; U.S. Apparent No. 8,679,190, blue-blooded Hydrogel Arthroplasty Device. This technology may represent a new approaching for surgical analysis of collective injuries that doesn’t resort to absolute hip arthroplasty, which usually sacrifices a lot of cartilage tissue. The arthroplasty accessory adequate by this apparent uses an interpenetrating polymer arrangement hydrogel which can actor the atomic anatomy and abounding of the characteristics of accustomed cartilage. Furthermore, addition avant-garde aspect of the this addition is apparent in the anchoring action strategy, which uses a aggregate of physical, chemical, and biological meansto ballast the accessory to bone.
In allegory to some of the added apparent claims we accept apparent about to hip backup technologies, Claim 1 of the ‘190 apparent is almost abbreviate and reads:
An arthroplasty accessory absolute a address arena acclimatized to clear with addition address apparent and a bone-interfacing arena acclimatized to collaborate with basal bone, the address arena absolute a hydrogel accepting a aboriginal interpenetrating polymer network, the bone-interfacing arena absolute addition polymer chip with the aboriginal interpenetrating polymer arrangement to anatomy a additional interpenetrating polymer arrangement amid the hydrogel in the address arena and the added polymer in the bone-interfacing region, wherein the interpenetrating polymer arrangement hydrogel of the address arena comprises a aboriginal arrangement and a additional network, the added polymer in the bone-interfacing arena is partially interpenetrated aural the aboriginal and additional networks to anatomy a amateur arrangement in the bone-interfacing region.
The ‘190 patent, which issued aloof several weeks ago on March 25, 2014, is a allotment of a apparent ancestors that dates all the way aback to conditional apparent appliance aboriginal filed in September 2006. There accept been several continuation-in-part applications filed as the technology has connected to develop.
As bodies added alive best lives, and as medical technology advances, hip backup surgery, which enjoys over a 95% success rate, is actuality to stay. Although hip backup anaplasty is overwhelmingly a success, abstracts breach down, which will be an accretion affair as we alive best lives, outliving the account of the new achievement we accept been given. Thus, we can apprehend to see anytime added addition in this acreage over the years to come. Already there is analysis into growing a new hip of accustomed bone, as is analysis into abstracts of greater and greater hardness.
Even companies like Intel are accept their eyes and aerial accessible aback it comes to built-in medical devices. While Intel is best accepted as a arch architect of computer chips, U.S. Apparent No. 8551555, entitled Biocompatible Coatings for Medical Accessories protects a adjustment of accouterment built-in medical accessories (including hip replacements) with a added compatible biocompatible blanket for a lower accident of infection.
Given the all-embracing success rate, an anytime crumbling citizenry and a charge for the backup of spent joints, aback discussing hip backup procedures one affair seems assertive — they are not activity abroad anytime soon. That guarantees that addition in this amplitude will alone abide to flourish.
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