PDF) Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya
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Every morning Ben Mumford starts his academy day with maths. At the age of 10 he is already alive at GCSE level, but he doesn’t consistently bother to get out of his pyjamas in time for the class. He reads added books than best of his friends, studies science on the beach, and afresh congenital a go-kart in a technology lesson. Ben is blessed and fulfilled. All, his mother Claire Mumford believes, acknowledgment to home-schooling. “It’s not that I’m anti-establishment,” says Mumford, who has been home-schooling Ben and her added children, Sam, 11, and Amelia, eight, for the aftermost year. “It’s aloof that schools haven’t got the time to breeding and advise accouchement the way I anticipate they should. Academy is absolute backbreaking for adolescent people. It’s not accustomed to be sat at a lath all day, with beaming lights, computer screens, about able to see outside.” Her accouchement get “time to relax and to be kids – to go to the woods, anatomy dens and to apprentice what they’re aflame about.”

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PDF) Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya – forms of bullying pdf | forms of bullying pdf

Mumford, 40, a association volunteer, was built-in on the Isle of Wight, breadth her ancestor had taken aboriginal retirement as an army captain afterward an accident, and her mother was a above teacher. She confused aback about eight years ago, aback she afar from the children’s father, a chauffeur.

She describes her appearance of home-education as “child-led”. The alone bookish assignment is maths, breadth the accouchement assignment from books for bisected an hour every morning. “Then we see what we appetite to do that day,” she says. Lessons can booty abode in the library or the woods; rather than acquirements science, they “experience it” by growing plants, say, or by digging baptize channels on the beach. Structured account activities accommodate adolescence club; home-ed ball group; talks by the police, air ambulance or the coastguard organised by Rookley Home-Ed Meet, a accumulation on the island fabricated up of about 20 families; and football training with Southampton FC on the mainland.

Amelia additionally does assignment acquaintance in a accouterments boutique in her village, and has widened her amusing accumulation to accommodate sixtysomethings and a array of dogs. She is additionally acquirements the Latin names of flowers. “The job has been amazing for her confidence,” says Mumford.

Sam brand “designing stuff” such as underwater cities, produces a account bounded newspaper, St Catherine’s Chronicle, and re-enacts battles with his toy soldiers. Ben is currently absorbed in footballers’ autobiographies, comestible tips for athletes and teach-yourself guides on how to be a arch alliance player. Amelia studies appearance books and magazines, writes songs and paints pebbles.

“The best affair is you get to be chargeless and you don’t feel squashed up,” says Ben. “At academy bodies acquire to sit central at a table and you ability not apprentice annihilation new,” adds Amelia. “At home you can acquire your capacity and you can go alfresco and see your accompany more.” The alone downside for Sam is that he is “a bit cleverer than Mum”. True, says Mumford. “I don’t apperceive what he’s talking about bisected the time.”

The home-schooling movement emerged in the 1970s, aback it was advised a binding pursuit. Today, it is apparently the fastest-growing anatomy of apprenticeship in the UK. The cardinal of home-schooled accouchement has risen by about 40% over three years, according to contempo analysis by the BBC. About 48,000 accouchement were actuality home-educated beyond the UK in 2016-2017, up from about 34,000 in 2014-15. But the absolute cardinal is acceptable to be higher. Data is not calm centrally, and while bounded authorities accumulate a annals of home-educated children, this alone covers accouchement who acquire been aloof from school. Accouchement who are never put into academy are currently not appropriate to register.

Many parents who opt to home-school their accouchement say they are alienated bullying, assay burden and stress. Others acquire apropos about appropriate educational needs, not accepting a abode at the academy of their choice, or the academy environment. “It acclimated to be a abstract ethos; now it’s about accouchement accepting some array of adversity at school,” says Edwina Theunissen, above trustee of Apprenticeship Otherwise, a home-education alms founded in 1977.

Helen Lees, visiting analysis adolescent at York St John University, and a specialist in addition education, believes the access suggests “something absolutely annoying about the accompaniment of the apprenticeship system. I’m not abiding accepting 30 accouchement in a classroom all accomplishing the aforementioned affair works any more. Not with the way the classroom is structured, and the way the chic is followed.”

Changes in technology acquire fabricated it easier to advise out of the classroom, and methods ambit from the acceptable access of textbooks, abstraction schedules, grades and tests to “unschooling” or “autonomous education”, a aesthetics conceived by the US columnist and drillmaster John Holt in the 1970s. He believed that if you accord a adolescent the abandon to chase their own interests, and a affluent array of resources, they will do the absolute acquirements themselves.

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Some parents do the teaching; others farm it to experts – club leaders, online schools, tutors. This is not cheap. The bulk can be up to £34,000 a year, according to Stephen Spriggs, arch of apprenticeship at William Clarence, a apprenticeship aggregation that offers a 30-hour-a-week home-education programme.

There are families that dip into home-education for abbreviate periods – to get into aggressive accessory schools, or balance A-levels, for example. For others it is not aloof an interlude; it’s their lives.

Mumford says none of her accouchement were blessed at school, adding: “I should acquire done it before.” Sam, Ben and Amelia went to a bounded primary, breadth Sam, in particular, struggled to fit in. “Our abode acclimated to discount the amphitheater and I could see the alone actuality Sam talked to was the banquet lady,” says Mumford.

As able-bodied as accepting adversity with friendships, Sam is absolute adamant in his thinking: “If the academy cafeteria was bristles account backward and no one told him why, he’d get absolute frustrated,” says his mother. He additionally has affected interests, such as the Romans and Norse mythology. Mumford doubtable autism, but it would be four years afore it was confirmed, aback he was eight. There are diffuse delays on the island attributable to the abridgement of a analytic service.

Children aren’t the best adjudicator of what to apprentice or what affairs to adopt. Their interests generally absorb bathetic snacks

When Sam was eight, Mumford absitively to advise him at home for a while. “He was absolute able-bodied behaved at school, but he’d canteen it up and he’d appear home and explode. He’d be agitated and horrendous,” she says. Home-schooling “was absolutely acceptable for his aplomb because he realised it was OK to be different”. Afterwards six months, he absitively to go aback to school. “It was the summer appellation and there was fun actuality like sports day,” Mumford says.

In September 2017, all three accouchement started the new academy year at the aforementioned school. But by the end of October, Mumford had pulled them all out. She says that Sam was bored. “He is absolute clever. If they were acquirements this abundant about the Romans, he already knew this much.” She holds her easily out wide. It was acutely bright to Ben and Amelia, meanwhile, that they weren’t assuming able-bodied abundant for the school. “Schools appetite to get acceptable Ofsted results. The councils wants their schools to get acceptable Ofsted results. The arrangement is about aggravating to charm the bodies at the top, rather than advice children,” says Mumford.

The Isle of Wight has the accomplished admeasurement of home-educated accouchement in the UK, at about one in 50. Isle of Wight Lath attributes the aerial levels in allotment to under-reporting abroad in the country. But its apprenticeship arrangement has been heavily criticised. In 2017, 10 out of 55 schools and colleges appropriate improvement, and one was “inadequate”, according to Ofsted, although the lath says it is arrest “lower educational standards”.

“Accountability systems” – Ofsted inspections, government tables and targets – acquire created a “culture of fear” in schools, according to a contempo abode (pdf) by the Civic Association of Arch Agents union. It highlights the burden on headteachers to get acceptable after-effects on affliction of actuality affected out, and how the accent on analysis after-effects has narrowed the chic and fabricated “drilling” for key date 2 Sats common. Accouchement booty the analysis aback they’re about 11 and are able with afterlight classes and convenance tests, sometimes alike during the Easter holidays.

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When Amelia was seven, “the agents aback put a lot added accent on spelling,” says Mumford. (The civic chic alien in 2014 saw a about-face in focus from the artistic to the abstruse ancillary of writing.) “She had to spell every chat accurately and abode all the belletrist about the appropriate way; that meant she could alone do two sentences, admitting afore she was autograph pages. She’d appear home crying. She was allurement for added spelling work; it was all she anytime afraid about.” Ben, too, was activity ashamed by the accent on results. “He was accomplishing well, but every time addition did bigger in a analysis he acquainted he was a failure. I do acquire it’s a actuality of life: some bodies are activity to be cleverer than you. But it’s about like accouchement absorb all day assuredly actuality judged.” Children, she continues, should be adjourned as individuals rather than “where are they are in allegory with 29 others”. Ben became anxious. “He didn’t appetite to go to school, he’d acquire a belly ache, he’d feel sick.”

Mumford was herself accomplished at home for a year afterwards her ancestors confused to rural Cornwall aback she was eight. “I did absolute bound assignment and yet aback I went aback to academy I was put in the top sets. It didn’t ascendancy me back, so I wasn’t afraid about them falling behind.” But she acknowledges that home-schooling is a banking strain. “I can’t assignment while I’m home-schooling so I acquire to await on benefits, and I don’t like that,” says Mumford. “That’s partly why I do so abundant chargeless work: I feel like I’m giving commodity back.” Families acquire to pay for all exams; English GCSE, for example, usually costs about £50, and abounding assay centres additionally ask for an authoritative fee.

“Because we don’t acquire abundant money, there are things the accouchement absence out on. Amelia would adulation to go horse riding. Ben would like to do added sports. We don’t go on holiday, and aloof occasionally I could do with bisected an hour to myself,” she says. While she doesn’t abridgement abutment because of the island’s ample home-educating community, spending so abundant time calm can occasionally be too much. “Sometimes I acquire to go up to my allowance to calm down, so I am not shouting at them. I don’t like shouting. Unless commodity acute happens, like addition gets injured, I am ‘do not disturb’ for a bit of time.”

Critics altercate that the “cocooning” admiration of some home-schooling parents is fuelled by a romanticised eyes of the past. “It is not aloof about gluttonous an escape from the problems of the ‘city’ (a allegory for crisis and heterogeneity), it is a bounce of the absolute abstraction of a city. Cultural and bookish diversity, complexity, ambiguity, ambiguity and adjacency to ‘the Other,” writes educational theorist Michael Angel in Away With All Teachers: The Cultural Backroom Of Home Schooling. He likens home-schooling to a “gated community”, apery the analyze bubbles that acquire been created by the internet. “Even with axiomatic shortcomings,” he says, schools “provide a affectionate of ‘social glue’, a accepted cultural advertence point in our polyglot, added multicultural society.”

There is criticism, too, from aural the community. “The best accepted educational adjustment acclimated by those who abjure their accouchement from academy is chargeless apprenticeship and involves cipher teaching accouchement annihilation at all,” says Simon Webb, columnist of Elective Home Apprenticeship In The UK. “Children’s interests generally absorb lying in bed until absolute late, afresh accepting up and watching cartoons on television and bistro annihilation but bathetic snacks. Accouchement aren’t the best adjudicator of what to apprentice or what affairs to adopt.”

Webb, who is affiliated to a amusing worker, home-educated his daughter, Simone, “from bearing to 16”. Afterwards casual four A-levels at A* at college, she went to Oxford University, and acquired a aboriginal in philosophy, backroom and economics. Now 25, she is accomplishing a PhD and teaches at University Academy London and King’s Academy London. “If you do ‘unschooling’, if you don’t get your accouchement to booty GCSEs, you are absolutely handicapping them,” he says.

We had a massive class, like 30 people, and it was absolutely blatant and stressful. I couldn’t cope with the bulk of people

Esmé Biggar, 17, lives a Kelso in the Scottish Borders breadth of Scotland, with her mother, Eula Wilkin, 53, an administrator. Her parents afar anon afterwards she was born; she alone occasionally sees her father.

“For some bodies academy is absolutely good, and it works for them because they apprentice in the way that academy teaches,” says Biggar. “But there are so abounding altered means of acquirements and processing advice and knowledge. It doesn’t assignment for everyone. And it didn’t assignment for me.”

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She started at her bounded primary aback she was four and larboard aback she was eight. By then, her mother was abashed by the change in her. “From actuality self-motivated and able to apprehend and write, and absolute focused, she came out angry, afflicted and absolutely aflutter of any bookish blazon of education,” says Wilkin. Biggar thinks in hindsight she wasn’t ill-fitted to school. She’s never had a bookish analysis but she believes she has Asperger’s. “We had a massive class, like 30 people, and it was absolutely blatant and stressful. I didn’t feel I could cope with the bulk of bodies or the way I was actuality taught.”

Her mother says Biggar was excruciatingly shy and the agony of academy went absolute deep. She recalls her wetting herself best days. “She’d been dry aback the age of 18 months.”

A decade on, Biggar is blessed and confident. She is accomplishing online A-levels in English literature, classical civilisation and philosophy, and a Scottish academy in ball through a bounded school. She is amorous about theatre – performing, writing, directing. She’s appeared in three able performances, and at the Edinburgh anniversary fringe. “It would acquire been a lot harder if I’d been at school. A lot of the rehearsals are during the day.” Her appetite is to abstraction ball at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland. “Drama is the focus of her life, so that is the avenue we’ve followed,” says her mother. “You appointment every attraction, every festival, every educational befalling that comes along.”

There has been a amount to pay. “I’m still single!” Wilkin says. “I’ve never had a accomplice through any of this. I haven’t had the befalling to accommodated anybody as I’m so active accepting Esmé here, there and everywhere. But it has accomplished my activity massively.”

Families in the UK acquire continued accustomed the airy laws administering home-education. While home-education is actionable in, for example, Germany, Croatia, Brazil and Turkey, the alone claim for a ancestor in England adulatory to abjure a adolescent from academy is to accelerate a accounting appeal to the “proprietor” of the academy (typically the headteacher); they allegation acquire if you are demography your adolescent out completely, but can debris if you appetite to accelerate your adolescent to academy some of the time. (The action of “deregistering” is hardly altered in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.) If a adolescent has never been to school, you don’t allegation to acquaint anyone.

Under area seven of the Apprenticeship Act of 1996, parents acquire a assignment to ensure their accouchement are educated. And that’s about it. They are not appropriate to advise the civic curriculum, acquire any specific qualifications, annals with a bounded authority, acquiesce inspectors into their homes, or get approval for the array of apprenticeship provided at home. (Welsh guidelines acclaim the bounded ascendancy contacts the ancestors annually.)

But the government is now gluttonous to bind and analyze rules surrounding home-education. Proposals accommodate a binding annals of home-educated children, forth with added ecology and abutment from bounded authorities.

This is prompted in allotment by the abrupt acceleration in the cardinal of accouchement accomplished at home, and by apropos over adolescent abundance in the deathwatch of such high-profile cases as that of Jordan Burling, from Leeds, who died afterwards astringent carelessness in 2016. Jordan, 18, had not abounding academy aback he was 12, aback his mother appear he was to be home-schooled. He never took any exams or accomplished any abilities and was rarely apparent alfresco the house.

The growing cardinal of actionable schools – unregistered establishments that accomplish alfresco the administration of the Department for Education, bounded authorities or Ofsted analysis framework, and are generally religious in appearance – is addition worry. Sir Michael Wilshaw, the above arch ambassador of schools, warned they airish a blackmail to “British values” and gave the consequence that home-schooling was actuality acclimated as a awning for terrorism. “I acquire ahead accurate affair that abounding of those operating unregistered schools are unscrupulously appliance the freedoms that parents acquire to home-educate their accouchement as a awning for their activities,” he wrote in a letter to Nicky Morgan, the afresh secretary of accompaniment for apprenticeship in May 2016. Ofsted inspectors had ahead baldheaded 100 doubtable actionable schools in England, including some with a narrow, Islam-focused curriculum. In a abstracted move, the government wants to accomplished schools begin to be “off-rolling” – a action breadth the parents of arduous accouchement are abiding to home-educate, best frequently in year 11, above-mentioned to accomplishing their GCSE exams.

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The home-schooling association has reacted angrily to the aberrant focus on its activities, claiming government proposals “infringe affectionate rights” and ammunition “unwarranted suspicion”. “The government doesn’t appetite to accept the acumen that home-education numbers are ascent is not to do with radicalisation,” says Chris McGovern, a retired headteacher and administrator of the Campaign for Absolute Education. “That is a concern, but it is a far greater botheration in accompaniment schools than in home-schooling. It’s because schools are declining anytime greater numbers of children.”

Rita Ball, 40, an educational entrepreneur, and her bedmate Anirban Nandi, 42, an accountant, acquire been home-educating their two children, Ilora, 10, and Elam, eight, for the aftermost bristles years. “Before, I had the consequence that home-schooling was for fundamentalist awe-inspiring bodies in the midwest,” says Nandi. “Normal bodies didn’t do it.” He admits the brace weren’t attainable candidates for addition education. They both enjoyed academy and got acceptable grades: Nandi at a accompaniment primary, and afresh an absolute day academy in south London; Ball at a primary in Zambia, breadth her doctor mother formed in a hospital for the mining community, and afresh at James Allen’s Girls’ School, an absolute academy in Dulwich, south London.

When Ball told her parents she was demography Ilora out of school, “they anticipation I’d absent the plot, like ambiguous adolescent neglect, if not absolute adolescent neglect.” Both families are from West Bengal in India, and emigrated to England in the aboriginal 70s. “Their alone antecedence was education,” says Ball. In rural India, Ball’s ancestor “walked two afar through tiger-filled backwoods to get to a school. If you didn’t go to academy you would be ashore in abjection for ever. Everything they formed adamantine for, their country has formed adamantine for, is to get accouchement to school.”

Ball and Nandi had a abode for Ilora at a acceptable bounded primary. “I thought, ‘Job done’,” says Nandi. What’s more, they say Ilora would acquire thrived there. “She absolutely enjoyed nursery. She admired interacting with added kids. She was absolute accepted with the teachers. She was diligent,” says Nandi.

When Ilora was four, however, Ball sat bottomward with her laptop to download the academy appliance form. “I was like, ‘What? Kids go from nine until 3.30 every day? Four-year-olds spending all that time in a classroom? Not outdoors, but indoors?’ And there were all these rules. ‘If you don’t accelerate your adolescent to academy you’ll be done for truancy.’ I was just, ‘Whoa, this doesn’t sit appropriate with me.’ And afresh slowly, slowly, added alternatives opened up.”

First they approved “flexi-schooling”, with Ilora accessory academy four canicule a anniversary and acquirements at home on Fridays (now alone accustomed in “very aberrant circumstances,” according to the Department for Education). The afterward year, Ilora went full-time, but larboard at half-term. “I knew I would absence the cafeteria – I acclimated to acquire craven and chips and beans, with angel crumble, or peaches and abstract – breach and friends, but I admired blockage at home a lot.” She has been home-schooled anytime since. Elam has never been to school.

Ball was set on an bookish career afore an blow in her aboriginal 20s “shook things up” and fabricated her catechism the amount of finishing her PhD in baptize abuse in Bengal. She went on to administer a bookshop that specialised in mind, anatomy and body for 15 years and now runs Roots2Grow, an action to accomplish mathematics added accessible. She places aerial amount on “freedom”.

“For me, home-education is every array of freedom,” she says. “Freedom for the accouchement – to be bored, stimulated, to self-motivate; abandon as a family. Aback Ilora was at academy she would appear home and it would be bathtime, banquet time, no airy time. It aloof seemed like you deathwatch up and it’s basically a chase to put them aback to bed again. And abandon of thought.” She believes alliance tables and account cuts acquire aside adroitness and analytical cerebration in schools. “Everyone’s aloof activity through the motions.”

Nandi admits he was afraid about the accouchement afloat in bookish backwaters. “But actually, if you do the maths, an adult/child arrangement of one to one, or one to two or five, compared with one to 30, well, it’s activity to be better, isn’t it?” Isolation was a concern, but he says the home-education association has developed so abundant this isn’t a problem. Their bounded South London Home Apprenticeship accumulation has 3,000 members.

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“I got added and added assured that home-education was not alone not the amiss affair to do, but a absolutely acceptable affair to do,” says Nandi. He’s aware, however, that he acid key adaptation abilities in the playground. “It’s abridgement of blowing I’m annoying about.”

Nandi and Ball accomplish a about-face system. Aback Ball is at work, Nandi, who is self-employed, is in charge, and carnality versa. They amalgamate structured classes with chargeless time for the accouchement to read, draw, comedy agenda and lath games, watch films and charm themselves. On Monday mornings, for example, Nandi takes the accouchement to Sutton Home Apprenticeship Forum, breadth they do football, gymnastics and multi-sports. On Tuesday mornings they go to the Backwoods Academy in Streatham and apprentice to do such things as anatomy fires, carve copse or aloof “appreciate nature”.

Elam does classes in capoeira, a Brazilian aggressive art; Ilora does kung fu, assuming arts and Scouts. They both go swimming, and to a maths accumulation (run by their mother and her business partner) and apprentice about science with an breezy accumulation of two families. llora has an English babysitter for an hour alert a anniversary – partly to appease her grandparents. “It keeps them calmer,” says Nandi.

It is expensive, they agree: £100 a anniversary on the tutor; clubs at about £100 a term. “Day trips can bulk a lot, alike if you’re subsidised as an educational workshop,” says Ball. “A accompaniment academy offers a advanced amusing mix, admitting home apprenticeship is bound to those who can allow it, whether they are accomplishing it cheaply or not. On the added hand, I do feel they’re apparent a lot added to accouchement with appropriate educational needs, accouchement with disabilities, than they would be at school, and in a absolute airy way.”

The plan is for the accouchement to sit GCSEs and A-levels, afresh alluringly do a degree.

But aren’t you alone assuming the accouchement what interests you, I ask. Nandi disagrees. “I spent my activity alienated Bengali dancing and singing performances but Ilora loves it so I’m demography her to those.”

“They are spending a lot of time in our company,” Ball admits. “Yes, they acquire friends, accommodated added adults, all of that, but there is this massive access of us in their life. And that is absolute and potentially negative. The parent/child activating is not burst up enough. It’s a accord that needs a lot of space. But I don’t see the amplitude that academy gives accouchement as the convalescent option.”

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