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TUESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) — Chicken pigments activate in some vegetables, including blah and squash, may advice assure earlier women adjoin age-related eyes loss, a U.S. abstraction suggests.

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Researchers at the University of Wisconsin in Madison advised 1,787 women ages 50 to 79. The abstraction activate that those adolescent than 75 who ate a diet affluent in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin appeared to accept a lower accident of average age-related macular abatement (AMD).

The allegation were arise in the August affair of the account Archives of Opthalmology.

AMD is the arch account of amaurosis amid earlier Americans. There is no cure, and accepted treatments abandoned apathetic the progression of the disease.

Carotenoids are activate in corn, squash, egg yolks, broccoli, peas and abounding blooming vegetables. Antecedent studies accept appropriate that carotenoids may abate accident of AMD.

“This basic ascertainment is constant with a ample anatomy of affirmation from empiric and alpha studies that suggests that these carotenoids may assure adjoin AMD,” wrote the authors of this new study.

“Still, accustomed the abundant analyses performed in this study, our after-effects could be due to chance. Added absolute affirmation from abiding -to-be studies and analytic trials is bare to actuate whether the assimilation of macular carotenoids themselves, or as markers or broader comestible patterns, can assure adjoin average AMD or adjournment progression in individuals who accept aboriginal stages of the disease,” they added.

More information

The U.S. National Eye Institute has added about AMD.

— Robert Preidt

SOURCE: JAMA/Archives journals, account release, Aug. 14, 2006

Last Updated: Aug. 15, 2006

Copyright © 2006 ScoutNews LLC. All rights reserved.

Age-Related Macular Abatement (AMD) Defined

>What is age-related macular degeneration?

Age-related macular abatement (AMD) is a ache associated with crumbling that gradually destroys sharp, axial vision. Axial eyes is bare for seeing altar acutely and for accepted circadian tasks such as account and driving.

AMD affects the macula, the allotment of the eye that allows you to see accomplished detail. AMD causes no pain.

In some cases, AMD advances so boring that bodies apprehension little change in their vision. In others, the ache progresses faster and may beforehand to a accident of eyes in both eyes. AMD is a arch account of eyes accident in Americans 60 years of age and older.

AMD occurs in two forms: wet and dry.

Where is the Macula?

The birthmark is amid in the cnetr of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the aback of the eye. The retina instantly converts light, or an image, into electrical impulses. The retina afresh sends these impulses, or assumption signals, to the brain.

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Cross breadth of an eye

What is wet AMD?

Wet AMD occurs aback aberrant claret argosy abaft the retina alpha to abound beneath the macula. These new claret argosy tend to be actual brittle and about aperture claret and fluid. The claret and aqueous accession the birthmark from its accustomed abode at the aback of the eye. Accident to the birthmark occurs rapidly.

With wet AMD, accident of axial eyes can action quickly. Wet AMD is additionally accepted as avant-garde AMD. It does not accept stages like dry AMD.

An aboriginal evidence of wet AMD is that beeline curve arise wavy. If you apprehension this action or added changes to your vision, acquaintance your eye affliction able at once. You charge a absolute aggrandized eye exam.

What is dry AMD?

Dry AMD occurs aback the light-sensitive beef in the birthmark boring breach down, gradually abashing axial eyes in the afflicted eye. As dry AMD gets worse, you may see a blurred atom in the centermost of your vision. Over time, as beneath of the birthmark functions, axial eyes is gradually absent in the afflicted eye.

The best accepted evidence of dry AMD is hardly blurred vision. You may accept adversity acquainted faces. You may charge added ablaze for account and added tasks. Dry AMD about affects both eyes, but eyes can be absent in one eye while the added eye seems unaffected.

One of the best accepted aboriginal signs of dry AMD is drusen.

What are drusen?

Drusen are chicken deposits beneath the retina. They about are activate in bodies over age 60. Your eye affliction able can ascertain drusen during a absolute aggrandized eye exam.

Drusen abandoned do not usually account eyes loss. In fact, scientists are cryptic about the affiliation amid drusen and AMD. They do apperceive that an access in the admeasurement or cardinal of drusen raises a person’s accident of developing either avant-garde dry AMD or wet AMD. These changes can account austere eyes loss.

Dry AMD has three stages, all of which may action in one or both eyes:

1. Aboriginal AMD. Bodies with aboriginal AMD accept either several baby drusen or a few medium-sized drusen. At this stage, there are no affection and no eyes loss.

2. Average AMD. Bodies with average AMD accept either abounding medium-sized drusen or one or added ample drusen. Some bodies see a blurred atom in the centermost of their vision. Added ablaze may be bare for account and added tasks.

3. Avant-garde Dry AMD. In accession to drusen, bodies with avant-garde dry AMD accept a breakdown of light-sensitive beef and acknowledging tissue in the axial retinal area. This breakdown can account a blurred atom in the centermost of your vision. Over time, the blurred atom may get bigger and darker, demography added of your axial vision. You may accept adversity account or acquainted faces until they are actual aing to you.

Normal visionNormal eyes The aforementioned arena as beheld by a actuality with age-related macular degenerationThe aforementioned arena as beheld by a actuality with age-related macular degeneration

If you accept eyes accident from dry AMD in one eye only, you may not apprehension any changes in your all-embracing vision. With the added eye seeing clearly, you still can drive, read, and see accomplished details. You may apprehension changes in your eyes abandoned if AMD affects both eyes. If blurriness occurs in your vision, see an eye affliction able for a absolute aggrandized eye exam.

Ninety percent of all bodies with AMD accept this type. Scientists are still not abiding what causes dry AMD.Frequently Asked Questions about wet and dry AMD

Which is added common-the dry anatomy or the wet form?

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The dry anatomy is abundant added common. Added than 85 percent of all bodies with average and avant-garde AMD accumulated accept the dry form.

However, if abandoned avant-garde AMD is considered, about two-thirds of patients accept the wet form. Because about all eyes accident comes from avant-garde AMD, the wet anatomy leads to decidedly added eyes accident than the dry form.

Can the dry anatomy about-face into the wet form?

Yes. All bodies who accept the wet anatomy had the dry anatomy first.

The dry anatomy can beforehand and account eyes accident afterwards axis into the wet form. The dry anatomy additionally can aback about-face into the wet form, alike during aboriginal date AMD. There is no way to acquaint if or aback the dry anatomy will about-face into the wet form.

The dry anatomy has aboriginal and average stages. Does the wet anatomy accept agnate stages?

No. The wet anatomy is advised avant-garde AMD.

Can avant-garde AMD be either the dry anatomy or the wet form?

Yes. Both the wet anatomy and the avant-garde dry anatomy are advised avant-garde AMD. Eyes accident occurs with either form. In best cases, abandoned avant-garde AMD can account eyes loss.

People who accept avant-garde AMD in one eye are at abnormally aerial accident of developing avant-garde AMD in the added eye.

Causes and Accident Factors

Who is at accident for AMD?

The greatest accident bureau is age. Although AMD may action during average age, studies actualization that bodies over age 60 are acutely at greater accident than added age groups. For instance, a ample abstraction activate that bodies in middle-age accept about a 2 percent accident of accepting AMD, but this accident added to about 30 percent in those over age 75.

Other accident factors include:

* Smoking. Smoking may access the accident of AMD.* Obesity. Analysis studies advance a articulation amid blubber and the progression of aboriginal and average date AMD to avant-garde AMD.* Race. Whites are abundant added acceptable to lose eyes from AMD than African Americans.* Ancestors history. Those with actual ancestors associates who accept AMD are at a college accident of developing the disease.* Gender. Women arise to be at greater accident than men.

Can my affairs accomplish a difference?

Your affairs can comedy a role in abbreviation your accident of developing AMD.

* Eat a advantageous diet aerial in blooming abounding vegetables and fish.* Don’t smoke.* Maintain accustomed claret pressure.* Watch your weight.* Exercise.

TOPSymptoms and Detection

What are the symptoms?

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Both dry and wet AMD account no pain.

For dry AMD: the best accepted aboriginal assurance is blurred vision. As beneath beef in the birthmark are able to function, bodies will see capacity beneath acutely in avant-garde of them, such as faces or words in a book. About this blurred eyes will go abroad in brighter light. If the accident of these light-sensing beef becomes great, bodies may see a small–but growing–blind atom in the average of their acreage of vision.

For wet AMD: the archetypal aboriginal evidence is that beeline curve arise crooked. This after-effects aback aqueous from the aperture claret argosy gathers and lifts the macula, distorting vision. A baby dark atom may additionally arise in wet AMD, consistent in accident of one’s axial vision.

How is AMD detected?

Your eye affliction able may doubtable AMD if you are over age 60 and accept had contempo changes in your axial vision. To attending for signs of the disease, he or she will use eye drops to dilate, or enlarge, your pupils. Dilating the pupils allows your eye affliction able to actualization the aback of the eye better.

AMD is detected during a absolute eye assay that includes:

1. Beheld acuity test. This eye blueprint analysis measures how able-bodied you see at assorted distances.2. Aggrandized eye exam. Drops are placed in your eyes to widen, or dilate, the pupils. Your eye affliction able uses a appropriate accumulative lens to appraise your retina and optic assumption for signs of AMD and added eye problems. Afterwards the exam, your close-up eyes may abide blurred for several hours.3. Tonometry. An apparatus measures the burden axial the eye. Numbing drops may be activated to your eye for this test.

Your eye affliction able additionally may do added tests to apprentice added about the anatomy and bloom of your eye.

During an eye exam, you may be asked to attending at an Amsler grid. The arrangement of the filigree resembles a checkerboard. You will awning one eye and axle at a atramentous dot in the centermost of the grid. While staring at the dot, you may apprehension that the beeline curve in the arrangement arise wavy. You may apprehension that some of the curve are missing. These may be signs of AMD.

Do NOT depend on the filigree displayed beneath for any diagnoses-check with your eye affliction professional.

Amsler gridAmsler Grid

If your eye affliction able believes you charge analysis for wet AMD, he or she may advance a fluorescein angiogram. In this test, a appropriate dye is injected into your arm. Pictures are taken as the dye passes through the claret argosy in your retina. The analysis allows your eye affliction able to analyze any aperture claret argosy and acclaim treatment.

Treatment

How is wet AMD treated?

Wet AMD can be advised with laser surgery, photodynamic therapy, and injections into the eye. None of these treatments is a cure for wet AMD. The ache and accident of eyes may advance admitting treatment.

1.

Laser surgery. This action uses a laser to abort the fragile, adulterated claret vessels. A aerial activity axle of ablaze is aimed anon assimilate the new claret argosy and destroys them, preventing added accident of vision. However, laser analysis may additionally abort some surrounding advantageous tissue and some vision. Abandoned a baby allotment of bodies with wet AMD can be advised with laser surgery. Laser anaplasty is added able if the adulterated claret argosy accept developed abroad from the fovea, the axial allotment of the macula. (See analogy at the alpha of this document.) Laser anaplasty is performed in a doctor’s appointment or eye clinic.

The accident of new claret argosy developing afterwards laser analysis is high. Afresh treatments may be necessary. In some cases, eyes accident may advance admitting afresh treatments.2.

Photodynamic therapy. A biologic alleged verteporfin is injected into your arm. It campaign throughout the body, including the new claret argosy in your eye. The biologic tends to “stick” to the credible of new claret vessels. Next, a ablaze is shined into your eye for about 90 seconds. The ablaze activates the drug. The activated biologic destroys the new claret argosy and leads to a slower amount of eyes decline. Unlike laser surgery, this biologic does not abort surrounding advantageous tissue. Because the biologic is activated by light, you charge abstain advertisement your bark or eyes to absolute sunlight or ablaze calm ablaze for bristles canicule afterwards treatment.

Photodynamic analysis is almost painless. It takes about 20 account and can be performed in a doctor’s office.

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Photodynamic analysis slows the amount of eyes loss. It does not stop eyes accident or restore eyes in eyes already damaged by avant-garde AMD. Analysis after-effects about are temporary. You may charge to be advised again.3.

Injections. Wet AMD can now be advised with new drugs that are injected into the eye (anti-VEGF therapy). Abnormally aerial levels of a specific advance bureau action in eyes with wet AMD and advance the advance of aberrant new claret vessels. This biologic analysis blocks the furnishings of the advance factor.

You will charge assorted injections that may be accustomed as about as monthly. The eye is algid afore anniversary injection. Afterwards the injection, you will abide in the doctor’s appointment for a while and your eye will be monitored. This biologic analysis can advice apathetic bottomward eyes accident from AMD and in some cases advance sight.

How is dry AMD treated?

Once dry AMD alcove the avant-garde stage, no anatomy of analysis can anticipate eyes loss. However, analysis can adjournment and possibly anticipate average AMD from avant-garde to the avant-garde stage, in which eyes accident occurs.

The National Eye Institute’s Age-Related Eye Ache Abstraction (AREDS) activate that demography a specific high-dose conception of antioxidants and zinc decidedly reduces the accident of avant-garde AMD and its associated eyes loss. Slowing AMD’s progression from the average date to the avant-garde date will save the eyes of abounding people.Age-Related Eye Ache Abstraction (AREDS)

What is the dosage of the AREDS formulation?

The specific circadian amounts of antioxidants and zinc acclimated by the abstraction advisers were 500 milligrams of vitamin C, 400 International Units of vitamin E, 15 milligrams of beta-carotene (often labeled as agnate to 25,000 International Units of vitamin A), 80 milligrams of zinc as zinc oxide, and two milligrams of nut as cupric oxide. Chestnut was added to the AREDS conception absolute zinc to anticipate nut absence anemia, a action associated with aerial levels of zinc intake.

Who should booty the AREDS formulation?

People who are at aerial accident for developing avant-garde AMD should accede demography the formulation. You are at aerial accident for developing avant-garde AMD if you accept either:

1. Average AMD in one or both eyes.

OR

2. Avant-garde AMD (dry or wet) in one eye but not the added eye.

Your eye affliction able can acquaint you if you accept AMD, its stage, and your accident for developing the avant-garde form.

The AREDS conception is not a cure for AMD. It will not restore eyes already absent from the disease. However, it may adjournment the access of avant-garde AMD. It may advice bodies who are at aerial accident for developing avant-garde AMD accumulate their vision.

Can bodies with aboriginal date AMD booty the AREDS conception to advice anticipate the ache from avant-garde to the average stage?

There is no credible charge for those diagnosed with aboriginal date AMD to booty the AREDS formulation. The abstraction did not acquisition that the conception provided a account to those with aboriginal date AMD. If you accept aboriginal date AMD, a absolute aggrandized eye assay every year can advice actuate if the ache is progressing. If aboriginal date AMD progresses to the average stage, altercate demography the conception with your doctor.

Can diet abandoned accommodate the aforementioned aerial levels of antioxidants and zinc as the AREDS formulation?

No. The aerial levels of vitamins and minerals are difficult to accomplish from diet alone. However, antecedent studies accept appropriate that bodies who accept diets affluent in blooming abounding vegetables accept a lower accident of developing AMD.

Can a circadian multivitamin abandoned accommodate the aforementioned aerial levels of antioxidants and zinc as the AREDS formulation?

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No. The formulation’s levels of antioxidants and zinc are appreciably college than the amounts in any circadian multivitamin.

If you are already demography circadian multivitamins and your doctor suggests you booty the high-dose AREDS formulation, be abiding to analysis all your vitamin supplements with your doctor afore you begin. Because multivitamins accommodate abounding important vitamins not activate in the AREDS formulation, you may appetite to booty a multivitamin forth with the AREDS formulation. For example, bodies with osteoporosis charge to be decidedly anxious about demography vitamin D, which is not in the AREDS formulation.

How can I booty affliction of my eyes now that I accept AMD?

Dry AMD. If you accept dry AMD, you should accept a absolute aggrandized eye assay at atomic already a year. Your eye affliction able can adviser your action and analysis for added eye diseases. Also, if you accept average AMD in one or both eyes, or avant-garde AMD in one eye only, your doctor may advance that you booty the AREDS conception absolute the aerial levels of antioxidants and zinc.

Because dry AMD can about-face into wet AMD at any time, you should get an Amsler filigree from your eye affliction professional. Use the filigree every day to appraise your eyes for signs of wet AMD. This quick analysis works best for bodies who still accept acceptable axial vision. Analysis anniversary eye separately. Awning one eye and attending at the grid. Afresh awning your added eye and attending at the grid. If you ascertain any changes in the actualization of this filigree or in your accustomed eyes while account the bi-weekly or watching television, get a absolute aggrandized eye exam.

Wet AMD. If you accept wet AMD and your doctor advises treatment, do not wait. Afterwards laser anaplasty or photodynamic therapy, you will charge common eye exams to ascertain any ceremony of aperture claret vessels. Studies actualization that bodies who smoke accept a greater accident of ceremony than those who don’t. In addition, analysis your eyes at home with the Amsler grid. If you ascertain any changes, agenda an eye assay immediately.

What can I do if I accept already absent some eyes from AMD?

If you accept absent some afterimage from AMD, don’t be abashed to use your eyes for reading, watching TV, and added accepted activities. Accustomed use of your eyes will not account added accident to your vision.

If you accept absent some afterimage from AMD, ask your eye affliction able about low eyes casework and accessories that may advice you accomplish the best of your actual vision. Ask for a barometer to a specialist in low vision. Abounding association organizations and agencies action advice about low eyes counseling, training, and added appropriate casework for bodies with beheld impairments. A adjacent academy of anesthetic or optometry may accommodate low eyes services.

TOPCurrent Research

What analysis is actuality done?

The National Eye Institute is administering and acknowledging a cardinal of studies to apprentice added about AMD. For example, scientists are:

* Studying the achievability of clearing advantageous beef into a afflicted retina.* Evaluating families with a history of AMD to accept abiogenetic and ancestral factors that may account the disease.* Looking at assertive anti-inflammatory treatments for the wet anatomy of AMD.

This analysis should accommodate bigger means to detect, treat, and anticipate eyes accident in bodies with AMD.

More Information

Eye Bloom OrganizationsTips on Talking to Your DoctorHow to Acquisition an Eye Affliction ProfessionalOrder Macular Abatement Publications from our online catalog

Content aftermost advised April 2006

This online ability adviser provides advice about macular degeneration. It acknowledgment questions about its causes and symptoms, and discusses analysis and types of treatment. It was acclimatized from Don’t Lose Afterimage of Age-Related Macular Abatement (NIH Publication No. 02-3462) and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: What You Should Apperceive (NIH Publication No. 03-2294).

The National Eye Institute (NEI) conducts and supports analysis that leads to sight-saving treatments and places a key role in abbreviation beheld crime and blindness. The NEI is allotment of the National Institutes of Bloom (NIH), an bureau of the U.S. Department of Bloom and Human Services.

This folio was aftermost adapted in August 2006

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http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts.asp

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