The latest 2013 afterlight of the California Activity Cipher (Title 24 of the CA Cipher of Regulations, Allotment 6) contains implications for the way we air-conditioned abstracts centers, server rooms, MDFs, IDFs, and aloof about every added computer allowance in California. These new regulations accept produced a cogent bulk of speculation, abashing and misinformation in the barter as they administer to abstracts centermost cooling. As a result, some California companies with committed IT amplitude accept questioned their adeptness to aggrandize their abstracts centers.
There are abounding cost-effective, high-efficiency, off-the-shelf low-PUE agency to accede with the new regulations in your amplification plans. The new requirements are not as arduous as some would suggest, and a little advice can bright up abounding uncertainties amid IT planners tasked with abyssal the law and befitting their IT accessories active optimally. Such appointment is area I absorb the majority of my time these days, and it has become bright to me that some accuracy would be accustomed by the IT association apropos Title 24. Hence, this article.
The agitation of California companies with attention to the Title 24 regulations is unwarranted. The overarching affair of the new rules is ability improvement. They represent a best-practices framework that reduces circadian operating costs and carbon brand associated with powering a abstracts center. In abounding cases (but not always) this framework requires added basic bulk on the advanced end, but that added bulk is added than compensated by the bargain operating costs over the activity of the abstracts center.
Although the Title 24 architecture codes administer the architecture of structures of all kinds, actuality we are discussing alone the sections accompanying to what it calls “computer rooms.” Title 24 defines a computer allowance as follows:
A allowance whose primary action is to abode cyberbanking accessories and that has a architecture accessories ability body aloft 20watts/ft² (215 watts/m²) of conditioned attic space.
An IT arbor about occupies about 20 aboveboard anxiety in a allowance (accounting for approval and infrastructure), which agency any appliance with added than 400 watts per arbor fits the analogue of a computer room. So if you are apprehensive whether your IDF or server allowance qualifies as a computer room, it about absolutely does.
It is accessible that any apropos you may accept about the new requirements are unfounded because you are “under the radar” with attention to the admeasurement of your approaching plans. The cipher alone accouterments the new requirements if the proposed abstracts centermost amplitude is aloft assertive thresholds in agreement of cooling capacity. These thresholds, aloft which acquiescence with the cipher is triggered, are authentic as follows:
So, for example, you would be able to add up to 175 kW of IT calefaction bulk to your absolute abstracts centermost over the advancing years after actuality accountable to the new 2013 Title 24 requirements, but as anon as you beat 175 kW aloft what it was at the end of 2013, you become accountable to the new regulations. Similarly, you would be able to body a new abstracts centermost in an absolute architecture with up to 70 kW of IT calefaction bulk after triggering compliance, or accommodate a new server allowance in your new architecture up to 17.5 kW after acquiescence concerns.
Most of the new requirements affect the way the abstracts centermost is cooled. Bequest computer-room air conditioners (CRACs) absorb the accepted algidity aeon area refrigerant is compressed, cooled, broadcast and acrimonious in a connected loop. This adjustment involves electric-motor-driven compressors, which draw a aerial bulk of electricity compared with added added able options that are accessible today. In addition, the acceptable CRAC access requires aerial fan ability to move abundant air to aish the appropriate bulk of heat—a aftereffect of poor hot/cold-air break and management.
To actual these issues and abate the bulk of activity abstracts centers use aloof to air-conditioned themselves, the new Title 24 rules crave the use of cooling economization. Cooling economization is a set of cooling techniques whereby the cooling average (either air or water) rejects calefaction anon to the alfresco environment, eliminating the use of motor-driven compressors and the acceptable algidity cycle.
The two types of economization active in avant-garde abstracts centers are “air side” and “water side.” Sometimes referred to as chargeless cooling, these techniques are not absolutely chargeless aback some apparatus still crave power, but the operating costs are far beneath than bequest refrigeration-based techniques. Conceptually, these two types of economization are absolutely simple to understand.
Air-side economization at its simplest akin involves application alfresco air to air-conditioned the abstracts center. There are abounding agency to do so, with capricious levels of complexity. Simply aperture doors and windows would be a anatomy of air-side economization (although not a decidedly able or defended one). The angel aloft shows a simple archetype of air-side economization. Added circuitous approaches can use evaporative cooling, aberrant air administration with air-to-air calefaction barter and more.
Water-side economization applies to systems that use baptize to alteration calefaction abroad from the abstracts center. In its simplest form, air-conditioned baptize passes through the braid in the CRAH assemblage and picks up calefaction from the balmy abstracts centermost air. This broiled baptize is beatific to an alfresco acknowledgment (dry acknowledgment or cooling tower) area the calefaction is removed, and the cooled baptize is beatific aback to the CRAH unit.
The new Title 24 cipher requires either air or baptize economization for computer rooms. The capabilities of these systems charge be as follows:
More acceptable refrigeration-cycle methods of cooling can still be acclimated if the alfresco air temperature is aloft these thresholds, but the arrangement charge about-face to economization back the alfresco air temperature drops beneath them. Given the avant-garde cooling accessories options accessible today, acquiescence with these requirements is not a aloft challenge.
A cogent aspect of the new economization requirements is that if you aggrandize an absolute abstracts centermost aloft the compliance-trigger threshold, all of the cooling in the abstracts centermost charge comply, not aloof the incremental addition.
A commonly accepted way to abate clamminess in a allowance is to run the evaporator braid in a refrigerant-based CRAC assemblage at a low abundant temperature that baptize condenses out of the air and is pumped out of the room. This access frequently leaves the air at a lower than adapted temperature, which is compensated by “reheating” the air application any of several accessible methods. This convenance is no best permitted.
Energy-intensive (non-adiabatic) methods of humidification are no best allowed. They accommodate beef and bittersweet methods. Alone adiabatic methods are allowed, including accelerated and absolute evaporation. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) airy some of the acceptable clamminess thresholds in 2011. Clamminess can still be a concern, decidedly with air-side economization that introduces alfresco air to the abstracts center. See the afterward accessible links:
A minimum fan ability is now appropriate for all computer-room cooling systems. Fan ability at architecture altitude of an alone cooling arrangement charge not beat 27 W/kBtu/hr of net alive cooling accommodation for the system. Stated addition way, and in added acceptable units, it charge not crave added than 92 watts of fan ability for the cooling arrangement to aish 1,000 watts of IT calefaction load.
Maximum acceptable fan ability = 92 watts per kW of IT load
Variable-speed fan ascendancy charge be allotment of any cooling arrangement with greater than 60 kBtu/hr accommodation (17.5 kW of IT calefaction load). This ascendancy charge alter the fan acceleration in admeasurement to the calefaction bulk and absorb no added than 50% of architecture fan ability at 66% of architecture fan speed. Any avant-garde variable-speed fan will calmly accommodated this criterion. Universal fan laws adumbrate a abstract ability abridgement of over 70% back the fan acceleration drops by 34% (to 66% of abounding speed).
Isolation of the hot and algid air in a computer allowance is now appropriate for apartment aloft 175 kW absolute architecture IT load. It can be accomplished in any of a cardinal of ways, as continued as hot/cold-air bond is essentially prohibited. Exceptions to this ascendancy claim accommodate expansions of absolute computer rooms, IT racks with a architecture bulk beneath 1 kW and agnate activity achievement based on engineering analysis.
The requirements for abstracts centermost cooling techniques put in abode by the new 2013 California Title 24 regulations crave us to anticipate a little differently, but they are not ever crushing back the operational accumulation accomplishment is advised in the bulk analysis. The key is acute design, application avant-garde cooling apparatus in an calmly engineered cooling infrastructure.
Leading commodity angel address of Ken Lund beneath a Creative Commons license
Ty Colwell, PE, is a automated architect with Harold Wells Associates. He has advised and defined ability and cooling basement for hundreds of abstracts centers and server apartment over the accomplished eight years. Ty has an all-encompassing accomplishments in power-plant engineering, rotating-machinery dynamics, computer clay and thermal systems. He can be accomplished at 408-209-5731 or [email protected]
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